Volume 3         April 2002         Number 1



        A standing-room-only crowd of 300 or more greeted General Wesley K. Clark, U.S. Army (Ret.) when he entered Kiva Auditorium on October 17 to deliver the 2001 Annual Lecture sponsored by the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy at Temple University.

        Clark spoke on "America's Global Strategy" a week after the American military commenced its air campaign against the Taliban in Afghanistan. An audience that knew Clark as the Supreme Commander of NATO forces during the air war over Kosovo in 1999, author of the recent and controversial Waging Modern War: Bosnia, Kosovo, and the Future of Combat, and CNN's chief military consultant was surprised to hear him stress the importance of diplomacy and economic development in America's ongoing war against terrorism.Gen. Clark in Kiva


        General Clark addresses a packed house in Kiva Auditorium.

        "The solution to terrorism is not going to be found in bullets," Clark said. "It's not going to be found in precision ordnance or targeted strikes. It's really going to be found in changing the conditions. It's going to be found in establishing a global safety net that starts with security and goes to economic development and political development and the kinds of modernization which let others enjoy the fruits of modernization that we as Americans enjoy."

        Clark also warned Americans against thinking they can find security through isolationism or by relying exclusively on high-tech weaponry. "Our best protection is not going to build a wall around America," he said. "It's not going to be to create a missile-defense impenetrable shield. It's going to be, instead, to create a community of common values and shared responsibilities and shared interests in which nations and people get along. That really is ultimately the only protection."

        Dr. Richard H. Immerman, CENFAD's director, booked General Clark to speak at Temple eight months earlier - a time when few Americans could have imagined that Osama Bin Laden's Al Qaeda organization was capable of delivering such devastating blows to some of their country's most important and prominent structures. The concerns aroused by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, not only filled Kiva Auditorium with an attentive audience, but charged General Clark's talk with a sense of urgency and vital importance. Everyone present realized that the lecture was more than just another academic exercise.


        The fall 2001 semester witnessed the rebirth of CENFAD's student auxiliary. With the support and advice of Dr. Jay B. Lockenour, one of CENFAD's associate directors, the Student Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy was reestablished and rededicated to the study of military and diplomatic history. Adopting the acronym SCENFAD, the organization sponsored a field trip to the battleship USS New Jersey, which is now permanently moored across the Delaware River from Philadelphia at Camden, New Jersey.

        Commissioned on December 7, 1942, the "Jersey" saw action in World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and the Persian Gulf War. The ship was decommissioned in 1991.

SCENFAD on U.S.S. New Jersey

Members of the Student Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy pose on the deck of the
USS New Jersey with their guide, a retired U.S. Marine who once served aboard the battleship.


A retired U.S. Marine who had served aboard the New Jersey led SCENFAD members on their tour. The students soon realized that they were tramping up and down what had once been a floating city, as they visited the quarters for both officers and enlisted personnel, the ship's bridge, and the control room. Their guide also showed them the ship's armament, which ranged from the traditional 16-inch and 5-inch guns to Tomahawk missile launchers. SCENFAD members left the New Jersey with renewed respect for the United States' most decorated battleship. All participants agreed that the visit had been a memorable one, and SCENFAD hopes to provide Temple students with more enriching experiences as they pursue their study of military and diplomatic history.


        The months since September 2001 have been a busy time for the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy. In addition to hosting General Wesley Clark, CENFAD has sponsored other special events that attracted large audiences.

        In response to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, Dr. Vladislav Zubok mobilized some of the leading scholars in Temple's History Department for a special program titled "Third World Perspectives on the New World of Terror." A full-capacity audience crammed into Gladfelter 914 on the afternoon on November 19, 2001, to hear how Osama Bin Laden's escalating campaign of indiscriminate terror and America's responses are viewed in various parts of the Third World. With Dr. Zubok serving as moderator, Dr. Nguyen Thi Dieu spoke about Southeast Asia, Dr. Arthur Schmidt spoke about Latin America, Dr. Howard Spodek spoke about South Asia, Dr. Teshale Tibebu spoke about Africa, and Dr. Kathy LeMons Walker spoke about China.

        An audience of more than 120 people drawn from the Temple community and greater Philadelphia attended Dr. Gregory J. W. Urwin's lecture, "The Trap That Never Snapped: Admiral Kimmel and Wake Island." The lecture is the first in a series sponsored by CENFAD to mark the sixtieth anniversary of America's entry into World War II.

        CENFAD joined with Temple's Political Science and History Departments to sponsor a lecture by Colonel Alan Stolberg, U.S. Army, on "Post September 11 Europe." Colonel Stolberg is a Foreign Area Specialist and Military Intelligence officer, who has specialized in policy, strategy, and politico-military affairs regarding Russia, Eastern Europe, and Western Europe. He recently completed a tour as Chief, Europe/NATO Division, Plans and Policy Directorate (J5), U.S. European Command, Stuttgart, Germany. Stolberg gave an illuminating talk on the factors involved in waging military operations as part of an international coalition and where various European countries stand regarding America's current war in Afghanistan.

        Colonel Stolberg is scheduled to join the faculty of the U.S. Army War College this fall as Director for European Studies. He will be a frequent visitor to the Temple campus over the next few years, as he has enrolled in the Ph.D. program in Political Science.


Richard H. Immerman continues to focus his time and energy on directing the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy and chairing the Department of History. He did find time to participate in many programs and grant many interviews about the tragic events of September 11, 2001, their aftermath, and their implications for contemporary and future U.S. foreign policy and national security. With the invaluable assistance of Todd Davis and the cooperation of all of the Center's associates, Immerman redrafted and resubmitted a proposal for CENFAD to sponsor a series of symposia and then publish a volume of essays examining the "Effects of Non-Combatant Immunity and Casualty Aversion on Force and Diplomacy." As made clear in General Wesley's Clark's Annual Lecture and reinforced by the War in Afghanistan, the salience of this study is unambiguous. Immerman intends to visit several foundations in the spring and over the summer to seek additional sources of funding. Immerman has also begun to work on several long-range scholarly projects of his own.

Jay B. Lockenour, celebrated the publication of his first book, Soldiers as Citizens: Former Wehrmacht Officers in the Lockenour, Soldier as CitizensFederal Republic of Germany, 1945-1955 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press). For centuries prior to 1945, the German officer corps constituted a social and political elite in Central Europe. As Lockenour's book shows, the debacle of the Second World War, the scorn of the German populace, and the Allied occupation of West Germany did not entirely diminish the officers' critical role. By tracing the changing role of the officer corps from its position in the National Socialist dictatorship to its current status in a Western-style democracy, Soldiers as Citizens illuminates both the development of a democratic ideology in the Federal Republic and the influence of warfare in German society. Lockenour details how former officers in West Germany founded quasi-legal organizations with memberships numbering in the hundreds of thousands; how they lobbied the German and Allied governments for their pensions, waged public relations campaigns to restore their lost "honor," and sought input into the rearmament plan after 1950; and how, as officers, they claimed to speak with the "voice of the soldier" whose wartime experiences and sacrifices earned him a special place in the new republic. In Lockenour's analysis, the officer corps provides an enlightening example of a social group, ravaged by war and defeat, trying to orient itself in a hostile world. In their alternative model for democracy based on "soldierly" values, they also give us a clearer, more complex understanding of postwar history. Soldiers and Citizens not only offers important insights into German military culture, but it also sheds much light on European political development in the Cold War era.

        Not one to sit on his laurels, Lockenour presented a paper titled "German War Films of the 1950s and the Shaping of Public Memory" at the 2001 German Studies Association. The paper dealt with the "war film wave" that broke over Germany in the mid-late 1950s. Lockenour argues that these war films allowed the German public adopt a palatable view of war and to accept the Federal Republic's rearmament.

Janice Bially Mattern, assistant professor of political science, lectured three times to Temple audiences about the events of September 11, 2001 -- twice on the Main Campus and once at the Tyler School of Art. She addressed Temple alumni at the Metropolitan Club in New York City on "In the Line of Fire: Civilians and Modern War" last January. That same month, Mattern attended an intensive seminar at the Institute for Qualitative Research Methods at Arizona State University. During the seminar, she presented a paper called "Transversal Organized Crime: Re-Articulating Political Space in World Order." At the end of March, she presented a paper titled "The Difference that Language/Power Makes: The Case of the Suez Crisis"at the International Studies Association in New Orleans on March 27. Mattern is also wrapping up work on a book manuscript, which is tentatively titled "Forcing Order: Identity, Stability, and Crisis in International Politics."

Procida, Married to the EmpireMary A. Procida, assistant professor of history, had her first book, Married to the Empire: Gender, Politics, and Imperialism in India 1883-1947, published in January 2002 by Manchester University Press. She has recently begun work on a new project, tentatively entitled "England Expects Every Woman to Do Her Duty: Women, War, and the Imperial State," and will present a paper on the Anglo-Manipuri War of 1891 drawing on that research at the Middle Atlantic Conference on British Studies.

Gregory J. W. Urwin, professor of history, had his prize-winning book, Facing Fearful Odds: The Siege of Wake Island, released in paperback by University of Nebraska Press. In addition, Urwin signed a contract with University Oklahoma Press to publish a new paperback edition of a book he originally published in 1983, The United States Cavalry: An Illustrated History. Oklahoma also published the first book in the Campaigns and Commanders Series (which Urwin serves as general editor) -- Napoleon and Berlin: The Franco-Prussian War in North Germany, 1813 by Michael V. Leggiere. Campaigns and Commanders has a growing list of titles under contract, including a new history of the First Battle of Bull Run by the prolific Temple Ph.D., Edward G. Longacre.Urwin, Facing Fearful Odds

        Following the terrorist attacks on September 11, Urwin, who recently contributed to a conference and a collection of essays on homeland defense sponsored by the U.S. Army War College, has received frequent calls from many media outlets. The sixtieth anniversary of America's entry into World War II has given reporters another reason to ring Urwin's telephone. He has been interviewed by the Christian Science Monitor, Cox News-papers, and newspapers across Pennsylvania and New Jersey. He published an op-ed piece, "Attacks Show Need for Secondary Defense," in the Philadelphia Metro. He has been a guest panelist three times on "It's Your Call," an hour-long call-in show broadcast by Comcast 8; appeared on news broadcasts on Philadelphia's ABC and CBS affiliates; and did some radio interviews.

        Finally, Urwin is featured as an on-camera commentator in "Those Who Also Served: The Civilian Construction Men of Wake Island," an eighty-two minute documentary about the 1,146 employees of Contractors Pacific Naval Air Bases who were caught on Wake Island at the outbreak of World War II. "Those Who Also Served" was written and produced by William F. Kauffman of Aviator Pictures in Santa Monica, California.


David Rezelman continues to work on his dissertation in Norfolk, Virginia. As part of his fellowship from the Department of Energy (which was extended for three months), he continues to construct the DOE Manhattan Project web site. He expects to finish his dissertation in the summer of 2003 and the web site by May or June of this year. Rezelman also reviewed Aileen Kilgore Henderson's Stateside Soldier: Life in the Women's Army Corps, 1944-1945 (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2001) for H-Minerva.

David J. Ulbrich published "Henry S. Aurand: Student, Teacher, and Practitioner of U.S. Army Logistics" as a chapter in The Human Tradition in America between the Wars, 1920-1945, edited by Donald W. Whisenhunt in the "Human Tradition in America" series from SR books. This series of classroom readers uses biography to illuminate important trends in pivotal periods of American history.


        Temple University's graduate program in history enjoys the support of the Barnes Club, a student organization dedicated to creating a stronger sense of community among our graduate students. The Barnes Club provides students with opportunities to network with their professors and peers, and it provides a forum for students to discuss their ideas and concerns. The club also represents our students in presenting issues of special concern to the History Department's Graduate Council.

        One of the Barnes Club's most important projects is the sponsorship of an annual conference for graduate students in history, giving them a chance to share their research with their peers. The Sixth Annual Barnes Club Conference, which was held on February 23, 2002, was an unqualified success. It featured thirteen different panels, with presenters representing universities from all over Pennsylvania, as well as New York, Delaware, North Carolina, and Texas.

        Of course, Temple students played a prominent role in every aspect of the conference. Eleven Temple students affiliated with the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy gave papers. Those presenters and their titles were:

Paul E. Zigo, "A Failure of American Diplomacy - Summer 1941: The Proposed Roosevelt-Konoye Meeting."

Britton MacDonald, "The Maple Leaf and the Eagle: Canada, the United States, and the Early Cold War."

Anthony St. Joseph, "The 1961 Vienna Summit: The Missed Opportunity."

David J. Ulbrich, "Choosing Themes in World History."

Philip J. Gibbon, "Broad Vistas in World History: The 'Big,' the 'Exceptional,' and the 'Globalized.'"

Michael E. Weaver, "The Social Composition of Pennsylvania National Guard Soldiers on the Eve of Mobilization, 1941."

Darren L. Bardell, "Selling Uncle Sam: The U.S. Army's Television Recruitment Commercials, 1970-1997, and the Evolution of a New Image - in Prime Time."

Harry Franqui, "The Borinqueneers: Dual Nationality and the Creation of the Free Commonwealth of Puerto Rico."

Stephen Conrad, "The Fortification Board: Bernard, Totten, and the Birth of the Third System."

Matthew S. Muehlbauer, "Did Indians Really Skulk?: A Reconsideration of American Indian Warfare in the Colonial Era."

Thomas Nester, "The New Orleans Race Riot, July 30, 1866."

In addition, five students with CENFAD ties -- Richard Grippaldi, Bobby Wintermute, Ben Cassidy, Ginger R. Davis, and Joseph Seymour -- joined various panels to comment on the papers presented.


        Since earning an M.A. at Temple University, Paul F. Zigo has carved a niche for himself at Brookdale Community College in New Jersey. In addition to obtaining appointments as director of off campus studies and as an adjunct professor of history, Zigo also helped establish Brookdale's new Center for World War II Studies and Conflict Resolution.

        The center, which Zigo serves as coordinator, strives to educate Americans about the political, economic, social, and military aspects of World War II through classroom instruction, exhibits, educational programs, and web-site informational pages provided on campus as well as off campus. The center also conducts programs that foster the concept of conflict resolution without aggression. The center has launched a World War II studies lecture series that runs each fall and spring. It has its own cable television show, "Triumphant Spirit: America's World War II Generation Speaks," which features interviews with veterans of the war and those who experienced life on the home front. Finally, the center will sponsor a New Jersey Youth Summit on Peacekeeping for approximately 300 senior high school students in March 2003.

        Zigo hopes to establish a partnership between Temple's Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy and Brookdale's Center for World War II Studies and Conflict Resolution on programs of mutual interest sometime in the future.


Richard H. Immerman

        We live in a difficult time. The death tolls continue to rise in Afghanistan, in the Middle East, seemingly everywhere in
Africa.  Sometimes we call the conflicts that cause these deaths wars; sometimes we call them something else. Sometimes we call those who are killed combatants; sometimes we call them civilians; sometimes we call them something else. We live in a difficult time; we live in a confusing time; we live in a time of uncertainty and danger.

        Throughout the weeks and months since the publication of the last issue of Strategic Visions, our colleagues and students at Temple, representatives from the media, civic organizations, principals at area schools, and many others have frequently asked those of us associated with the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy to provide explanations for what is occurring and even to predict what is likely to occur in the future. In virtually all cases we have obliged. Personally, I have found most of these experiences enjoyable--and for the most part intellectually stimulating. During the majority of my interviews someone asked at least one question that forced me to think about something I had not thought about before. Such challenges are the lifeblood of academic life.

        What worries and troubles me, however, is that many of those with whom I speak, older as well as younger in age, appear so innocent, for lack of a better word. It's almost as if only after September 11 did they decide that global events, even those that directly involved or affected American personnel and interests, and even those that produced large numbers of casualties, warranted attention. Frequently I am asked whether the United States, and the world, have embarked on a new era. My response is that it is premature for me to say for certain, and then I list the variables. But I keep wondering to myself whether these questioners can identify the components of the "old" era, or old eras. "Those" were also difficult times, confusing times, uncertain and dangerous times. Why am I being asked now and not before?

        No doubt my discomfort is the product, at least to an extent, of previous wounds. Over the past decades, the academic community especially has progressively exiled military history, diplomatic history, and indeed the study of international relations to the periphery of its universe. Only during times of crisis, it sometimes appeared, were we embraced. I always thought that unfortunate -- and I like to think not primarily for personal reasons. I never doubted that we had much to offer all audiences. What makes Temple unusual, particularly but not exclusively its College of Liberal Arts, is that as a community it agreed -- and embraced our interests and concerns. The College promoted the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy long before September 11, 2001. That it did makes me proud as well as pleased to be affiliated with Temple. That I direct the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy makes me that much prouder.

        In these pages you will learn of the many activities of our associates and students -- as well as their accomplishments and research agendas. And as we achieve, we grow. Indeed, CENFAD can now boast of its newest Research Associate Professor Mary Procida. A colleague in the History Department, Professor Procida recently published Married to Empire: Gender, Politics, and Imperialism in India, 1883-1947. Her current project is tentatively entitled, "England Expects Every Woman to Do Her Duty: Women, War, and the Imperial State," and she has also agreed to contribute an essay to our project on Non-Combatant Immunity and Casualty Aversion that examines how ideas about masculinity and femininity influence the way soldiers, strategists, and policy-makers define noncombatant status. Our embarrassment of riches has become richer.


The publication of Dr. Mary A. Procida's first book, Married to the Empire: Gender, Politics, and Imperialism in India, 1883-1947, by Manchester University Press is worthy of more than just passing notice. Publishing one's first book is always a landmark in the life of a professional historian. In most cases, that work is a revised version of the author's doctoral dissertation. Its publication signifies that the author's research and writing has attained a level higher than the minimum necessary to earn a Ph.D. Many dissertations never get published. Those that do have to impress the editors of academic presses with both their scholarly merit and market appeal. They also have to be approved by the expert readers who university presses hire to vet their manuscripts.

In Married to the Empire, Procida provides a new approach to the growing history of women and empire by situating women at the center of the practices and policies of British imperialism. Rebutting interpretations that have marginalized women in the empire, this book demonstrates that women were crucial to establishing and sustaining the British Raj in India from the "High Noon" of imperialism in the late-nineteenth century through to Indian independence in 1947.

The book is divided into three parts and seven chapters:Procida, Married to the Empire

Part One - Domesticity
1. Married to the Empire
2. Home Is Where the Empire Is
3. Servants of Empire

Part Two - Violence
4. Re-writing the Mutiny
5. Good Sports

Part Three - Race
6. Imperial Femininity and the Uplift of Indian Women
7. Women, Men, and Imperial Power

Barbara Bush of Staffordshire University praises Married to the Empire as "a fascinating and fluently written narrative of Anglo-India, making a lively and perceptive contribution to the burgeoning academic literature on gender and empire."

Procida is an assistant professor in Temple University's History Department. She not only holds a Ph.D. in history from the University of Pennsylvania, she also has a J.D. from the Harvard Law School. Procida worked for eight years as a tax attorney for several Wall Street law firms and as a legal personnel director before she saw the light and enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania to pursue her doctorate in history. In addition to being one of CENFAD's research associate professors, she is an affiliated professor of Women's Studies, and the History Department's pre-law adviser.

When asked to describe her research interests, Procida replied: "British history has been transformed over the past ten years or so by a growing awareness that the British empire, as embodied by the colonized peoples and colonial settlers of Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, Australia, the Pacific and North America, played a critical role in shaping the history of modern Britain. My own work in this area has focused on the British in India examining, in particular, the roles British women played in establishing and maintaining imperial rule in India and the ways in which ideas about masculinity and femininity shaped British imperialism."

Some of the projects Procida hopes to tackle in the future include the exploration of cultural contacts between the British and the colonized peoples of the empire through the concept of "going native," and an examination, from a gendered perspective, of the uses of physical and military force and violence in controlling the British empire.


Jeffrey K. Bower (CLA, '81), a former history major and current member of CENFAD's Board of Advisers, has demonstrated his gratitude for his Temple education and his confidence in and commitment to the Center's future.

Mr. Bower, chief of the eBusiness Program for the Defense Energy Support Center, Defense Logistics Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia, has generously endowed the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy's first graduate student research fund. The Jeffrey K. Bower Endowed Graduate Research Fund in History will support dissertation research congruent with the mission of the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy. A CENFAD faculty committee will award the fellowship annually.

The CENFAD community is proud to acknowledge its debt to Mr. Bower and pledges to repay it by continued excellence.


        Anyone who visits the home of Dr. Russell F. Weigley knows that CENFAD's co-founder, distinguished university professor emeritus, and one of the world's premier military historians is also an avid collector of toy soldiers. Since joining Temple's History Department following Weigley's retirement, Dr. Gregory J. W. Urwin has begun collecting formidable miniature armies of his own. Two years ago, Urwin became a historical consultant for the William Britain Company, which has been producing military miniatures in London since 1893. Britain miniatures are prized by collectors worldwide, and the company's line has specialized in memorializing the regiments that built the British Empire. American tourists have seen the firm's little Guardsmen, Beefeaters, and Bobbies adorning the shelves of every gift shop in London.

        A few years ago, this British cultural icon was purchased by an American company, Ertl Collectibles in Dyersville, Iowa. Urwin came to the attention of the company's management during a book tour in eastern Iowa in March 2000, and he was invited to become a consultant later that year. His services involve helping to select the units to be depicted in the company's American Revolution, Napoleonic Wars, American Civil War, and World War II lines. He also writes the short historical essays that accompany each set.



Some of Dr. Urwin's toy soldier designs for the William Britain Company's 2002 line.  (Top row, left
to right)  Colonel Robert Gould Shaw and Sergeant William A. Carney of the 54th Massachusetts
Volunteer Infantry, 1863; Light Infantry Captain and Musician, 40th Regiment of Foot, Battle of
Germantown, 1777; Battalion Company Captain and Fifer, 62nd Regiment of Foot, Battle of Saratoga,
1777.  (Bottom row, left to right) Battalion Company Sergeant and Privates, 62nd Regiment of Foot,
1777; Privates, 2nd Massachusetts Regiment, Battle of Saratoga, 1777; Captain and Drummer,
2nd Massachusetts Regiment, 1777.

        Some of the toy soldiers that Urwin designed were released this year. They reflect his interest in black involvement in the American Civil War, the British Army of the American Revolution, and Philadelphia history. Five figures depict Colonel Robert Gould Shaw and four black enlisted men from the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, the Union Army's most celebrated African-American regiment. As a consultant for the film Glory, Urwin was able to provide Britain's artists and sculptors with information on the 54th's uniforms and colors, and he also donned a reproduction Civil War uniform to pose for the Shaw figure.

        To mark the 225th anniversary of the Revolutionary War's Battle of Germantown, Urwin had Britain issue sets depicting the light infantry company of the British 40th Regiment of Foot and the 3rd New Jersey Regiment. To commemorate the 225th anniversary of Saratoga, Urwin researched sets depicting the 62nd Regiment of Foot and the 2nd Massachusetts Regiment. Urwin insisted that the 40th and 62nd Foot sets show how the British Army adapted to campaign conditions in North America. The uniforms worn by these figures are not based on peacetime regulations, but on what the Redcoats actually wore as documented by British orderly books and contemporary illustrations produced by Xavier Della Gatta and Friedrich von Germann. The clothing on the American figures was reconstructed from deserter reports in colonial newspapers.

        As part of his reward for this work, Urwin receives many samples from the William Britain inventory. While he has a long way to go before his collection equals the size of Russell Weigley's, he has made a strong start. This is one arms race that should not result in any dangerous consequences.

Strategic Visions: Newsletter of the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy at Temple University.

Editor: Gregory J. W. Urwin

Co-Editor of Internet Edition: David Rezelman

Contributors: Richard H. Immerman, Jamie Orose

Strategic Visions is published twice a year by the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy, Department of History, Temple University. CENFAD was founded in 1992 by Drs. Russell F. Weigley and Richard H. Immerman. The Center promotes research and sponsors programs designed to construct new theories of statecraft and illuminate the process whereby force and diplomacy are orchestrated to produce peace and security. Address all comments, news, and other correspondence to the editor, Gregory J. W. Urwin, Department of History, Temple University, Gladfelter Hall (025-24), Philadelphia, PA 19122. Phone: 215- 204-3809.


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