Volume 4                   Spring 2003                        Number 1


        The Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy takes great pleasure in announcing that on Wednesday, March 26, 2003, Colonel John Bonin, (U.S. Army, retired), will speak on "Contemporary Army Operations in the Middle East: Afghanistan, Kuwait, and ?" A former holder of the George C. Marshall Chair of Military Studies at the U.S. Army War College, Bonin currently serves as Scholar-in-Residence at the Army Heritage and Education Center in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He is also a Ph.D. candidate in Temple's Department of History. This symposium will be held in Tuttleman Learning Center (TLC) Room 105 on Temple's Main Campus. The program will start at 2:45 P.M., and admission is free and open to the public. Colonel Bonin will gladly respond to audience questions following his talk. 

"The Final Push through the Rumayiah Oil Field," an official U.S. Army painting
of the First Persian Gulf War, by Mario Acevedo.  (Courtesy U.S. Army
Center of Military History)

        For those unable to attend this special CENFAD event, Colonel Bonin will present his lecture again at noon on the following Wednesday, April 2, at the Union League. To purchase a ticket (which includes lunch), contact Laureen Strabone, 215-587-4465.


        The CENFAD community suffered a severe blow on Ash Wednesday, March 5, 2003, when Dr. Mary A. Procida, an assistant professor in Temple University's History Department, died at her home in Haddonfield, New Jersey, after a two-year battle with melanoma. She was forty-three years old.

        Procida grew up on Long Island as an only child. She graduated summa cum laude from Harvard University in 1981 with a degree in history. She then entered Harvard Law School, where she edited the Harvard Women's Law Journal and graduated cum laude in 1984. Procida enjoyed great success as a tax attorney and a legal personnel director in New York City, working eight years for several major Wall Street law firms. History, however, remained her first love, and she chose to give up the legal profession. She entered the graduate program at the University of Pennsylvania, where she was a Benjamin Franklin Fellow, and earned a Ph.D. in British history in 1997.

        Procida joined Temple's History Department as an assistant professor in 1997. During the 2002 fall semester, the department recommended Procida for tenure and promotion to associate professor. These recommendations were approved by the College of Liberal Arts and President David Adamany by the time Procida died. On March 12, Temple University's Board of Trustees granted Procida tenure posthumously.

        Procida specialized in the role that British women played in establishing imperial rule in India and the ways femininity shaped British colonialism. As she put it, "British history has been transformed . . . by a growing awareness that the British empire, as embodied by the colonized peoples and colonial settlers of Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, Australia, the Pacific and North America, played a critical role in shaping the history of modern Britain. My own work in this area has focused on the British in India examining, in particular, the roles British women played in establishing and maintaining imperial rule in India and the ways in which ideas about masculinity and femininity shaped British imperialism." Procida developed these ideas in her first book, Married to the Empire: Gender, Politics, and Imperialism in India, 1883-1947, which was released last year by Manchester University Press.

        Married to the Empire provides a new approach to the growing history of women and empire by situating women at the center of the practices and policies of British imperialism. Rebutting interpretations that have marginalized women in the empire, Procida demonstrated that women were crucial to establishing and sustaining the British Raj in India from the "High Noon" of imperialism in the late-nineteenth century through to Indian independence in 1947.

        Having established her credentials as a social and gender historian, Procida branched out to become a practitioner of the "new military history," an approach that stresses the social and cultural factors that shaped military affairs over strategy and tactics. Procida's growing interest in this field stemmed in part from her appreciation of the work being done at Temple by CENFAD's faculty. She wanted to be part of the excitement and to contribute to the training of students interested in both military and diplomatic history.

        Procida plunged into a new book project tentatively titled "England Expects Every Woman To Do Her Duty: Women War and the Imperial State" with her usual thoroughness, enthusiasm, and perceptiveness. She was in the process of investigating the connection between citizenship and the involvement of British women in war from the 1890s to World War II. In addition to a biographical study of Mrs. Ethel Grimwood, the heroine of the Anglo-Manipuri war of 1891, Procida intended to examine the role of British women nurses during World War I and the story of Molly Ellis, who became involved in the hostilities that raged between the British and India's frontier tribes in the 1920s. Procida also planned to investigate female involvement in World War II by exploring the lives of several notable British women who joined bands of local tribesmen in fighting the Japanese along India's northeastern frontier. Procida had already drafted two articles based on her new research. They are titled "'If You Can Keep Your Head': Gender and Heroism in the Anglo-Manipuri War of 1891" and "The Heroine of Her Own Life: Ethel St. Clair Grimwood and the Anglo-Manipuri War of 1891."

        Procida recently accepted an invitation from Dr. Richard H. Immerman to become a principal contributor to the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy. Procida worked to expand the conceptual boundaries of CENFAD's research agenda. As part of the Center's Non-Combatant Immunity Project, Procida was examining how ideas about masculinity and femininity influence the way soldiers, strategists, and policy-makers define noncombatant status. Her study was tentatively titled "Necessary Casualties or Innocent Victims?: Women in Modern Warfare."

        In addition to her achievements as a scholar, Procida was widely respected at Temple for her dedication and skill as a teacher. She took a leading role in curricular reform and did more than her share of committee work and other forms of academic service. She provided invaluable guidance for many bright undergraduates as the History Department's Pre-Law Advisor.

        Procida is survived by her husband, Glenn Moramarco; her two sons, Joseph (age seven) and Daniel (five); and her father, Vincent Procida. Many History Department faculty and graduate students joined Procida's family and other mourners at her Funeral Mass at Sacred Heart Church in Camden, New Jersey, on March 8. The Procida family announced that memorial donations may be made to the Sacred Heart Church School Sponsorship, 1739 Ferry Ave., Camden, New Jersey 08104. In addition, Temple's College of Liberal Arts and History Department are establishing an undergraduate award in Procida's memory.


        With the support of the College of Liberal Arts, the Department of History at Temple University is raising an endowment to fund the Mary A. Procida Award in Gender and History. This prize will go on an annual basis to the best qualified undergraduate as chosen by a faculty committee. Persons wishing to contribute to this endowment should send their checks to Julie Davidson; Assistant Dean for Development, CLA; Temple University; Office of Development and Alumni Affairs, 1938 Liacouras Walk; Philadelphia, PA 19122-6027. Checks should be made payable to Temple University, and be sure to write on the memo line: "Mary Procida Endowed Award in Gender and History."


        On October 15, 2002, the Student Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy (SCENFAD), CENFAD's student auxiliary, hosted an event entitled, "U.S. Intervention in Iraq: Wise, Prudent, or Foolish." The event featured the views of Colonel Steven Kidder, Director, Joint Flag Officers Warfighter Course in the Department of Military Strategy, Planning, and Operations at the U.S. Army War College at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, and Dr. Joachim Rennstich, Visiting Assistant Professor of Political Science at Temple. This seminar drew a large turnout of Temple undergraduates.

        Both speakers provided unique perspectives on the debate concerning a possible conflict with Iraq, then still in its infancy. Colonel Kidder's experience in military planning and his direct knowledge of both the region and the military issues involved made his commentary especially valuable for the audience. His presentation, followed by a lively question-and-answer session, outlined the major issues involved in the debate: Saddam's desire for weapons of mass destruction, the domestic problems shaping the response of our potential allies in the region, and the Bush administration's self-avowed motives and strategies for addressing the threat Saddam poses.

        Professor Rennstich is a native of Germany. He shared with the group his sense of how Europeans are responding to the crisis. He explained German resistance to any attack on Iraq as stemming from fears that an invasion would produce unpredictable and unwelcome consequences. Rennstich and the audience also discussed the issue of postwar reconstruction from an historical perspective, since several experts in German and American history were in attendance.

        It is interesting to see that many of the issues touched upon at this gathering are still being debated today - the prospects for and the consequences of Israeli intervention, the make-up of a post-Saddam Iraq, and the impact of an Iraq conflict on the "war on terror." SCENFAD hopes to schedule similar gatherings as part of its ongoing effort to involve students in military and foreign policy matters (and not just about Iraq).


        During the 2002 fall semester, CENFAD sponsored two timely seminars. These events dealt with subjects that have been dominating the headlines, and they attracted large audiences.

The first seminar was entitled "IT and IS: Information Technology and International Security." This event was instigated by Jeffrey K. Bower, another Temple alumnus, a member of CENFAD's Board of Advisors, and the generous benefactor who endowed the Center's first graduate student research fund.

(Left) Jeffrey K. Bower speaks about "eBusiness and Force Projection" at the "IT and IS" seminar.  (Courtesy Britton MacDonald)

       "IT and IS" featured the following papers: Jeffrey K. Bower, "eBusiness and Force Projection: Information Technology and Tactical Warfare"; Daniel Kuehl, "The Infosphere . . . New Battlespace and Arena for Strategic Operations"; and David A. Rosenberg, "C4ISR: Information Technology and Military Transformation; Some Reflections from the Last Sixty Years of US Naval History." Rosenberg made his return to Temple after an absence of several years. Formerly an associate professor in the History Department, Rosenberg still retains his ties to Temple as a professorial lecturer of history. He provided an interesting talk on how technology and procedure have affected naval operations, strategy, and tactics in the past, and continue to do so in the present. Kuehl also returned to Temple after graduating with his M.A. as one of Russell F. Weigley's students.  His talk focused on how the new digital age impacts upon strategic change and the spread of information. Bower discussed how IT can provide solutions to classic problems but can cause its own problems, but will make the military more accurate, flexible, and inexpensive.

(Right) Daniel Kuehl addresses "The Infosphere . . . New Battlespace and Areas for Strategic Operations" at the "IT and IS" seminar. (Courtesy Britton MacDonald)

        The second seminar spotlighted the Temple History Department's own Dr. Vladislav Zubok discussing his impressions and experiences at "The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962: A Political Perspective After 40 Years," the recent conference hosted by Fidel Castro in Havana. Zubok titled the presentation he subsequently gave at Temple "Castro and the Cuban Missile Crisis: A View from Havana." The idea of the Havana conference was to gather veterans of the crisis, historians, and declassified documents in one spot to create "synergy," as Zubok put it. Zubok created his own synergy with the room filled to capacity as numerous undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty attended the entertaining and informative discussion. He described the various interactions between Americans, Cubans, and Russians, which produced some surprising revelations. Zubok's anecdotes about such famous crisis veterans as Castro, Robert McNamara, and Ted Sorenson - including their formal and informal statements - provided some of the more fascinating moments in this exploration of the closest the world has yet come to nuclear war.

(Left) David A. Rosenberg speaks on "C4ISR: Information Technology and Military Transformation" at the "IT and IS" seminar. (Courtesy Britton MacDonald)



Richard H. Immerman, professor of history and CENFAD director, continues to work on his contribution to The CIA: A Comprehensive Reference, which he is co-authoring with Athan Theoharis, et al., during the few moments he can steal for research. Time constraints have also forced him to limit himself to but a few speaking engagements over the next several months. In March, he will be a featured speaker at a forum on "Conflict Resolution in the Middle East: Is It Possible?" The forum is co-sponsored by Brookdale Community College's Center for World War II Studies and Conflict Resolution and Center for Holocaust Studies. Immerman will be speaking later in March at a John F. Kennedy Library forum on the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower. Immerman also accepted an invitation to speak in May at a conference on U.S. relations with Guatemala during the 1950s. Sponsored by the Office of the Historian at the U.S. Department of State, the conference is scheduled to coincide with the release of a special Foreign Relations of the United States retrospective volume on U.S. involvement in the 1954 overthrow of President Jacobo Arbenz. Immerman's The CIA in Guatemala: The Foreign Policy of Intervention, based on archives initially released two decades ago, received the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations Stuart Bernath Book Prize in 1983.

Jay B. Lockenour, associate professor of history, accepted an invitation from LaSalle University to address its World War One Symposium on the subject, "Kaiser Wilhelm II and German War Guilt," last November. Along with Dr. Karl Larew of Towson State University, Dr. Lockenour introduced the audience to the peculiarities of Imperial Germany's system of government, especially the Kaiser's pernicious influence on policy-making. What happened during the July Crisis of 1914 was less a premeditated act of aggression, as some have argued, than a failure of "responsible government." The massive military of a modern state was in the hands of people utterly unaccountable to their country (except, as it turns out, in case of revolution). A leadership obsessed with racial struggle, pessimistic about future developments, and inclined to military solutions, adopted irresponsible and dangerous polices as a result. A system that operated at the pleasure of a monarch was ill-suited to the kinds of crises Germany (and Europe) faced between 1900 and 1914.

Janice Bially Mattern, assistant professor of political science, took over as director of her department's honors program in the fall 2002 semester.

        Mattern recently wrote "Narratives of Criminal Identity: 'Illicit' Political Communities and World Order" as the "breakout article" for a new research project on organized crime. She presented the article as a paper at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association in Portland, Oregon, in late February 2003.

        Mattern is also co-authoring a paper with William Petti, one of her graduate students. The manuscript is tentatively titled "Tipping Points in International Order: From the European States System to De-colonization," and it deals with mechanisms of change in international politics. Mattern and Petti hope to present their work at the 2003 annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, which will be held in Philadelphia next September.

        Finally, Mattern is collaborating with a group of Temple University faculty and administrators (including CENFAD director Richard H. Immerman) in establishing a Temple Center for Human Rights.

Gregory J. W. Urwin, professor of history, spent the last week of August 2002 on a barren atoll in the Central Pacific. The History Channel commissioned Greystone Communications of North Hollywood, California, to produce a two-hour documentary about the Wake Island Campaign based on Urwin's prize-winning book, Facing Fearful Odds: The Siege of Wake Island. Greystone engaged Urwin as the project's senior historical consultant. In August, it flew him, another historian, and six American veterans of the campaign to Wake Island to shoot interviews on the actual battle sites. Urwin's doctoral student, David J. Ulbrich, who is also a prize-winning scholar of Marine Corps history, came along with the production team as a historical consultant. Urwin and Ulbrich both reviewed the script in November for historical accuracy. The documentary is tentatively titled "Wake Island: The Alamo of the Pacific," and it should air on the History Channel in early May 2003.

Doctoral student David J. Ulbrich (left) and Dr. Gregory J. W. Urwin (right) display their
Temple pride upon arriving at Wake Island last August to shoot "Wake Island:  Alamo
of the Pacific," a documentary scheduled to air on the History Channel in early May 2003.
It is based on Urwin's book, Facing Fearful Odds:  The Siege of Wake Island.
(Courtesy Gregory J. W. Urwin)

        Urwin kicked off the fall lecture series for the David Library of the American Revolution at Washington Crossing, Pennsylvania, on October 17, 2002, by presenting "Cornwallis and the Slaves of Virginia: A New Look at the Yorktown Campaign." Five days later, Urwin lectured on "The Desperate Times: December 1941-June 1942" at Brookdale Community College's Center for World War II Studies and Conflict Resolution. He also participated in "From Rosie to Roosevelt: The American Command," a series of scholar-led lectures, film showings, and discussions at the Northampton Library in October and November. Urwin presided over the installments on "Marshall and the Strategy of War," "The Navy's Wars," and "MacArthur and the Pacific War."

        Urwin closed the year 2002 by publishing two articles in popular magazines. His "'A Very Disastrous Defeat': The Battle of Helena, Arkansas" appeared in North & South, Vol. 6 (December 2002), and "The Trap That Never Snapped" appeared in the January 2003 issue of World War II. The latter was derived from the lecture that Urwin delivered on Temple University's main campus in December 2001, "The Trap That Never Snapped: Admiral Kimmel and Wake Island," as the first installment in CENFAD's lecture series commemorating the 60th anniversary of the Second World War.

        At the same time, Urwin signed a contract with Southern Illinois University Press to publish his eighth book, Black Flag over Dixie: Racial Atrocities and Reprisals in the Civil War. Black Flag over Dixie is a collection of essays written by established scholars and rising young historians that explores the dark side of the American Civil War - the tendency of Confederate troops to murder captured black Union soldiers and runaway slaves. It also touches on black retaliation and the resulting cycle of fear and violence that would help poison race relations during Reconstruction. The book is scheduled for publication in fall 2003.

        Urwin took to the road again in January 2003 to present "Cornwallis and the Slaves of Virginia: A New Look at the Yorktown Campaign" at the weekly meeting of New York Military Affairs Symposium at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.

        University of Oklahoma Press reissued Urwin's second book, The United States Cavalry: An Illustrated History, in a new paperback edition in March 2003. The book was originally published in 1983. This year also marks the twentieth anniversary of the publication of Urwin's first book, Custer Victorious: The Civil War Battles of General George Armstrong Custer, which has remained in print since its first appearance and is currently available in hardback and paperback from two different publishers.

        The David Library of the American Revolution at Washington Crossing, Pennsylvania, named Urwin to its Academic Advisory Committee. His primary duty will be to read and evaluate the applications of all candidates for David Library Fellowships and help select the fellows for 2003-4. Urwin will also consult with Richard A. Ryerson, the David Library's Academic Director, on other issues facing this important research institution.

        Finally, Urwin found some time to participate in a string of reenactments marking the 225th anniversary of the British capture of Philadelphia during the American War of Independence. As a newly inducted private in the 23rd Regiment of Foot (Royal Welch Fusiliers), Urwin refought the battles of Brandywine and Germantown.



Ben Cassidy had his article, "Machiavelli and the Ideology of the Offensive: Gunpowder Weapons in The Art of War," published in the April issue of the Journal of Military History. This is an achievement rarely attained by a doctoral student before he even takes his preliminary examinations.

SPC Christian DeJohn, M.A. student in history, continues to make military history while serving with the National Guard's Apache Troop, 1/104th Cavalry, 28th Infantry Division (better known as the First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry) in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

        Early in the fall of 2002, Christian described some of his experiences and feelings for Strategic Visions:

        "We patrol a local town, and see bombed-out houses with bullet and shell holes in the roof (when they have roofs). It's very sobering. You ride down a narrow road and see a sign with a skull and crossbones, and "DANGER- MINES." Even the local high school that we patrol was used during the war (1992-1996) as a concentration and torture camp. We walk around the outside with loaded weapons, and the kids inside, taking classes, wave and smile, as if it's an everyday occurrence to see armed soldiers on the front lawn of a high school! You have to see it to believe it. I still can't connect the atrocities I read about back home with being here - I'm frequently standing on the same ground where these things happened, but I can't make the connection.

        "While I was training in Germany, I got to see Dachau, near Munich. It was strange because it has been beautifully cleaned up, repainted, landscaped. I found that upsetting, that they'd attempt to clean up such a place, sanitize it, as if people couldn't stand the real thing in all its horror. With all I've read about it, my mind was expecting blood stains on the walls, but instead I saw spotless, repainted buildings and perfectly manicured, landscaped lawns. It was almost like a Walt Disney World replica of the real thing, as if they don't trust people to cope with the reality - it bordered on a theme park! It was so odd to see this on the site of such horror - it offended me, you know, as if such crimes could ever be sanitized or reduced by a new coat of paint!"

        On November 28, Christian e-mailed the newsletter a particularly chilling account of developments in Bosnia:

        "Being in a heavily Serb area, you get only their version of the war here. Once I had a book about the war in the chow hall, and a woman who worked there assured me, 'That book is no good, all of those books are no good - they make the Serbs out to be the bad guys!' The Serbs come across to me like civilians in 1946 Germany, you know, guilty consciences - 'we knew nothing of any Nazi atrocities - we're good Germans - the other guy did it, we didn't have anything to do with it!' I wish I could get out more to hear the Muslim and Croatian side, too.

        "We've had local Serbs, even police chiefs, tell us, 'We are just waiting for you Americans to go home; then we'll finish the job on the Croats and Muslims.' They do resent our presence here.

        "We are doing a program right now where we collect weapons, if people choose to voluntarily give them up, door-to-door. Civilians walk right up and hand you boxes of hand grenades, land mines, bazookas, AK-47s, old German weapons from WWII, the works. It takes a bit of getting used to! I transported some live hand grenades to be destroyed by an Army 'bomb squad' - what a ride!

        "Then we had an incident where some soldiers in my Squadron captured a terrorist suspect. There are said to be at least 4 Al-Queda cells active here in Bosnia. This guy was leading groups that follow us around when we patrol, photograph our base, etc. He had weapons on his person, rocket launchers in his house, the works. So you really have to be on your toes."

This photograph of members of Troop A, 1/104th Cavalry, 28th Infantry Division
(better known as the First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry), in
Bosnia-Herzegovina features two Temple M.A. students who specialize in military
history.  SPC Christian DeJohn stands in the front row second from left, and
Sergeant Joseph Seymour stands at the far right.  (Courtesy  Joseph Seymour)

Jeffrey LaMonica, doctoral student in history, participated in a panel discussion on the role of Kaiser Wilhelm II in the 1914 July Crisis and the issue of War Guilt at the Western Front Association Seminar in Baltimore, Maryland, on October 26, 2002. Although LaMonica just entered the History Department's Ph.D. program last fall, he is a professor at LaSalle University.

David Longenbach, doctoral student in history, switched jobs in September. He left Penn State to become the associate academic dean at Lehigh Carbon Community College. His duties involve dealing with faculty at the college's off site locations. In addition to planning for his wedding in March, Longenbach hopes to join Dr. Richard Young in teaching a course on War and Logistics at Penn State in the fall of 2003.

Britton MacDonald, doctoral student in history, was elected president of the Barnes Club, the History Department's graduate student organization, for the 2002-3 school year. MacDonald is also this year's Thomas J. Davis Fellow in Diplomacy and Foreign Relations. In that capacity, he does most of the legwork that makes CENFAD run. Those duties include acting as the assistant editor of the hard copy version of Strategic Visions, as well as the co-editor of the Internet edition.

Colonel Michael R. Matheny, doctoral student in history, passed his preliminary examinations with distinction in November 2002. Matheny passed another important milestone on January 31, 2003, when he retired after twenty-nine years and seven months of service in the U.S. Army. Fortunately, this change of status will not end his association with the U.S. Army War College. He has been hired in a civilian capacity as an associate professor of Military Strategy and Operations. In this new position, he will construct the Basic Strategic Art Program (BSAP), a new basic qualification course for Army majors who have been chosen to become strategists.

Matthew Muehlbauer, doctoral student in history, reviewed Owen Connelly's On War and Leadership: The Words of Combat Commandersfrom Frederick the Great to Norman Schwarzkopf in the January 2003 issue of the Journal of Military History.

Commander Phillip G. Pattee, doctoral student in history, had his essay, "The Irish Struggle for Political, Economic, and Social Equity in Philadelphia during the Civil War," accepted for publication in Irish Soldiers, American Wars: Irish Involvement in the Mexican and American Civil Wars. This volume is being edited by Dr. Arthur Mitchell for Irish Academic Press of Dublin. In addition to preparing for his preliminary examinations, Pattee continues to discharge his duties as a faculty member at the U.S. Army War College.

David Rezelman, doctoral student in history, reviewed Aileen Kilgore Henderson's 2001 book, Stateside Soldier: Life in the Women's Army Corps, 1944-1945 (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press) for H-Minerva in July 2002. The review was subsequently reprinted by H-War in October.

Sergeant Joseph Seymour is also serving with Troop A, 1/104th Cavalry, U.S. 28th Division, in Bosnia-Herzegovina. With the start of the new year, he reported on his activities:

        "I spent most of Christmas Day sorting through confiscated weapons and ammunition that Troop A had gathered over November and December. The effort left me with an aching back, dirty hands, and cold fingers, but I think it was all in keeping with the spirit of the holiday. We collected enough ordnance to equip a battalion, and it will all be destroyed.

        "I can't say that the effort didn't give me some pleasure, as I seem to have an aptitude for that sort of thing. The sheer variety of armaments used in the war is mind-boggling. They used it all, from bolt-action Mausers and MG-42 clones to the latest and nastiest from Eastern and Western military engineers. But the people have been very good about turning the stuff in and from here it will all be crushed or blown up or whatever the boys at EOD decide to do with it.

        "Besides collecting weapons, my section has been busy in the nearby town of Samac. Our job is to establish a relationship with the local community while enforcing the Dayton Accords. As part of our outreach, I have been busy with a small number of high school students. Every Thursday I visit the school and teach them Philadelphia history. It is a good way to let them know who we are, and it also provides a good example of pluralism, democratic government, and religious and ethnic toleration. I'm not so sure how much I like PSYOPS, and it's all seat of the pants, but the students keep coming back and the principal seems to like me. I never expected to be doing anything like this over here. I can say without any cynicism that this has been a rewarding experience.

        "The rest of the deployment by comparison has been pretty mundane Army work. We travel out of our little fort in humvees, drive around to the local settlements, check in with the police and the mayor, stop at restaurants and cafes, and show the flag. It is uncanny how much this deployment resembles a John Ford western. I keep telling some of my men that we're performing the traditional US Cavalry mission, but they don't believe me. Fortunately, they don't have to believe me, and I don't have to explain everything."

David J. Ulbrich, doctoral student in history, published "Research Note: 'A Program for Covert Action against the Castro Regimen, 16 March 1960'" in SHAFR Newsletter, Vol. 33 (September 2002). The newsletter is published by the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations. He commented on a panel titled "Amphibious Warfare Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries" at the Mid-America Conference on History in September and on another panel titled "Responses to War: Pearl Harbor to 9/11" at the Northern Great Plains History Conference in October. Ulbrich led a discussion on General Dwight David Eisenhower and World War II as part of the Bucks County Free Library series "From Rosie to Roosevelt: A Film History of America in World War II." He also refereed a book manuscript for A. B. Longman.



Peter Kindsvatter, the command historian at the U.S. Army Ordnance Center and Schools at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, has published a revised version of his 1998 dissertation, American Soldiers: Ground Combat in the World Wars, Korea, and Vietnam. Initially entitled "Doughboys, GI's, and Grunts: Fear, Resentment, and Enthusiasm in the Combat Zone," Kindsvatter's dissertation won the College of Liberal Arts Bernard Watson Award. The book is one of the latest offerings from the distinguished Modern War Studies Series put out by the University Press of Kansas. It has been chosen as a main selection of the Military Book Club. Dr. Russell F. Weigley, who directed the dissertation, wrote the foreword for Kindsvatter's book.

Craig Livingston published "Lions, Brothers, and the Idea of an Indian Nation: The Mexican Revolution in the Minds of Anthony W. Ivins and Rey L. Pratt, 1910-1917" in the summer 2002 issue of Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. The article derives from Craig's 2001 dissertation, "From Above and Below: The Mormon Embrace of Revolution, 1840-1940," supervised by Dr. Richard H. Immerman.

Major Stuart R. Lockhart, U.S. Marine Corps, successfully defended his M.A. thesis, "'For These We Strive': The Military Socialization of the First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry during the Mexican Punitive Expedition, June 1916-January 1917," late in the fall 2002 semester. He has since assumed the duties of an instructor in the Department of History at the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland. Major Lockhart graduated from Annapolis in 1991, and he is the second Temple alumnus to teach at the Naval Academy in the last five years. He will be teaching American Naval History, 1775 to present, during his first semester at Annapolis.

(Left) Major Stuart R. Lockhart, USMC,  in student mode during a social gathering in the Graduate Lounge in Temple's History Department, fall 2002. (Courtesy Dr. Ralph Young)

John McNay, assistant professor of history at Raymond Walters College, University of Cincinnati, assessed President George W. Bush's doctrine of preemptive war in a guest column, "From Kennan to Condi," published in the Cincinnati Post on October 14, 2002. John also made a big splash in 2001 when University of Missouri Press published his first book, Acheson and Empire: The British Accent in American Foreign Policy. The book is a revised version of his doctoral dissertation, which he successfully defended in 1997.

Christopher Preble has accepted the position of Director of Foreign Policy Studies at the Cato Institute in Washington, D.C. In addition to producing papers on issues of contemporary importance, Chris will be responsible for organizing conferences and colloquia. This appointment is a tribute to Preble's scholarly accomplishments and administrative skill. He is currently completing revisions of his 2001 dissertation, "The Political Economy of National Security in the Nuclear Age: John F. Kennedy and the Missile Gap," which he defended before a committee chaired by Dr. Richard H. Immerman.

Colonel John F. Shortal, U.S. Army, has been nominated for appointment to the rank of brigadier general. Shortal received a B.S. from the U.S. Military Academy, and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Temple University. Shortal's 1985 dissertation, "Robert L. Eichelberger: The Evolution of a Combat Commander," became the basis for his well-regarded book, Forged by Fire: General Robert L. Eichelberger and the Pacific War (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1987). He has contributed frequently to such journals as Military Review and Parameters. Shortal is a graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College and the National War College. He has served in a variety of staff positions in the United States and abroad. One of his more recent postings has been executive assistant to the Commander in Chief, United Nations Command and Combined Forces Command and U.S. Forces in Korea. He has also served as a Training Brigade Commander at Fort Jackson, South Carolina.

Jennifer L. Speelman is spending her spring semester as an assistant professor at the Citadel teaching two sections of History 488: The United States and Patterns of War, as well as a graduate course that particularly suits her research interests, History 590: America and the Sea. She has also been invited to speak this April at the United States Merchant Marine Academy about a merchant mariner named Frederick McMurray whose long career at sea included time as cadet, instructor, and superintendent of the New York Nautical School.

(Right) Captain Jennifer L. Speelman of the South Carolina Unorganized Milita and the Citadel's History Department.  (Courtesy Dr. Jennifer L. Speelman)

        When Speelman accepted her position at the Citadel, it came with a captain's commission in the South Carolina Unorganized Militia (SCM). She writes that her rank "is not associated with the National Guard and my duties are solely limited to teaching at the Citadel." Readers of the on-line edition of Strategic Visions will be treated to a photograph of Captain Speelman in uniform.

Patrick J. Speelman is currently teaching four sections of World History 1500 to the Present at the College of Charleston. Following the 2002 release of his book, Henry Lloyd and the Military Enlightenment of Eighteenth-Century Europe, he is now is now busily working on a compilation of Lloyd's treatises with an introductory essay and index. He has also been invited to speak about his research to the Citadel's Phi Alpha Theta chapter in March.

Michael E. Weaver writes that he is enjoying his new job at the U.S. Air Force Air Command and Staff College at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama. "My coworkers," he revealed, "are collegial, committed, and sharp." He finds relations between the Air Force officers and civilian scholars who constitute the faculty to be free of friction. As he put it, "I cannot find any divide whatsoever between the USAF and civilian faculty." He also reported that his students are intelligent, willing to participate in class discussions, and open to new ideas. Weaver began his career at the Air Command and Staff College by passing a teaching test. His evaluation said that he performed "like a seasoned professional." Despite all his new responsibilities, he manages to devote his Saturday mornings to revising his dissertation for publication.


        There is nothing more rewarding to a scholar than to learn that his/her research has an impact beyond the limited confines of academe. Such an experience recently occurred to David J. Ulbrich, a doctoral student in Temple's Department of History.

        Last April, David went to Madison, Wisconsin, to present a paper titled "Henry S. Aurand. 'Logistics' Planning, and the U.S. Army, 1919-1941" at the annual meeting of the Society of Military History.

        Aurand has been forgotten -- even by military historians -- but he played a pivotal role in the U.S. Army's efforts in World War II. Aurand was born on April 21, 1894, in Tamaqua, Pennsylvania. He graduated twentieth in a class of 165 from West Point. Aurand began his military career in the Coast Artillery, but he switched to the Ordnance Corps in 1919. He earned a reputation as an outstanding instructor, leader, and logistician. He helped plan the Lend-Lease Program, and was a key contributor to the U.S. Army's Victory Plan for World War II. Aurand went on to serve as a commander of the Normandy Base Section from 1944-45, the U.S. Services of Supply, China Theater, in 1945, and in the Africa-Middle East Theater in 1946.  He also served as the Director of Research and Development in the War Department and as the Director of Logistics for the Department of the Army. He retired as the Commander, U.S. Army Pacific, in 1952, and died in 1980.

(Right) David J. Ulbrich poses with a salvaged .50-caliber antiaircraft machine gun in the small museum housed in the airport terminal on Wake Island.  (Courtesy David J. Ulbrich)

        Among the audience that heard Ulbrich's paper on Aurand was George Eaton, the Command Historian at Headquarters, U.S. Army Operations Support Command. What Eaton heard that day inspired him to take actions that are best explained in a letter that he sent to Dr. Gregory J. W. Urwin, Ulbrich's adviser, on November 25, 2002:

        "Mr. Ulbrich's presentation intrigued me. One of my duties is to prepare nominations to the Army Ordnance Corps Hall of Fame. General Aurand was an Ordnance officer, but one with an unusual career. Not many Ordnance officers get the chance to command an Army, let alone be the commander of a wartime theater of operations.

        "I checked and found that General Aurand was not in the Ordnance Hall of Fame. I contacted Mr. Ulbrich and enlisted his assistance. He provided me copies of two of his papers, some biographic information, and a point of contact at the Eisenhower Museum. Based on Mr. Ulbrich's input and my own research I prepared a nomination package. I am pleased to report that last week the nomination board approved the induction of General Aurand into the Hall of Fame. A ceremony will be conducted at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD in May.

        "I relay all this to you in order to express my appreciation for Mr. Ulbrich's assistance in researching General Aurand's career. David was helpful, professional, and supportive. His research and writings were of significant help to me. He has located an important but forgotten player in the history of World War II. There are more lessons to be learned from General Aurand's career, especially in his logistics planning and experiences in the logistics close-out of two different theaters of operation. I look forward to a book on this important figure.

        "Please relay my official thanks to Mr. Ulbrich."

        Ulbrich has already published an essay about Aurand. It is titled "Henry S. Aurand: Student, Teacher, and Practitioner of U.S. Army Logistics,"and it appeared last year in The Human Tradition in America between the Wars, 1920-1945, edited by Donald W. Whisenhunt. The book is a volume in the "Human Tradition in America" series from SR Books.


        Temple University's graduate program in history enjoys the support of the Barnes Club, a student organization dedicated to creating a stronger sense of community among our graduate students. The Barnes Club provides students with opportunities to network with their professors and peers, and it provides a forum for students to discuss their ideas and concerns. The club also represents our students in presenting issues of special concern to the History Department's Graduate Council.

        One of the Barnes Club's most important projects is the sponsorship of an annual conference for graduate students in history, giving them a chance to share their research with their peers. The Eighth Annual Barnes Club Conference, which was held on February 22, 2003, was an unqualified success. It featured ten different panels, with presenters representing universities from all over Pennsylvania, as well as Massachusetts, New York, Delaware, Ohio, Mississippi, Texas, and Washington, D.C.

        Matthew Muehlbauer chaired the committee that organized the conference. Other members included such CENFAD familiars as Richard N. Grippaldi, Britton MacDonald, Laura Szumanski Steel, and David J. Ulbrich.

        Of course, Temple students played a prominent role in every aspect of the conference. Richard N. Grippaldi presented a paper titled "Charles F. Smith and Light Infantry in the Mexican War." In addition, Ben Cassidy, Philip G. Pattee, Philip Gibbon, and Bob Wintermute commented on different sessions.


        One of the purposes of a university education is to expose students to ideas, information, and modes of thought that will serve them in good stead long after they have graduated. Nothing pleases a professor more than hearing from a student who has realized the value of what he or she received in the classroom.

        Recently, Dr. Jay B. Lockenour received this kind of validation in an e-mail from a former student, Lieutenant j.g. Tim LaBenz, U.S. Navy. LaBenz is now assigned to the aircraft carrier John F. Kennedy (CV 67) out of Mayport, Florida. LaBenz graduated from Temple summa cum laude in 1999 with a double major in history (with distinction) and political science (with honors). His billet aboard the Kennedy is 1st Division Officer, where he is in charge of two 67-ton anchors and associated anchor chains and equipment, 246 life rafts, and the preservation of the sides of the ship. Approximately fifty boatswains mates work under his supervision. Prior to LaBenz's tour on the Kennedy, he was stationed onboard the Aegis cruiser USS Monterey (CG 61) out of Norfolk, Virginia. He served as the cruiser's Information Systems Officer (communications and LAN). After LaBenz completes his tour on the Kennedy in early 2004, he plans to attend Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California.

        In between his many duties, LaBenz found the time to write Dr. Lockenour the following:

        "I was a former student of yours in your History H091 (War and Society) class back in the Spring '99 semester. I was a Navy Officer Candidate at the time of your seminar. I just wanted to drop you a line on a unique encounter I had last week. I am writing you because your class, and the text we read, became a topic of discussion on the ship on which I am currently stationed, the USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67). As I was conning ('driving') the ship during flight operations I had the pleasure of meeting one of the many distinguished visitors we often have onboard. The gentleman was a guest lecturer from the Naval Academy, Victor Davis Hanson.

        "Mr. Hanson and I spoke for about ten minutes about Hoplite Warfare from his book The Western Way of War. He inquired how I knew of his work and I mentioned/described your class. To say the least he was impressed with Temple's reputation and in particular the War and Society class. As stated I wanted to pass on the compliment I received from your class."

Strategic Visions: Newsletter of the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy at Temple University.

Editor: Gregory J. W. Urwin

Co-Editor of Internet Edition: Britton MacDonald

Contributors: Jay B. Lockenour, Jason Wittemen, Richard H. Immerman

Strategic Visions is published twice a year by the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy, Department of History, Temple University. CENFAD was founded in 1992 by Drs. Russell F. Weigley and Richard H. Immerman. The Center promotes research and sponsors programs designed to construct new theories of statecraft and illuminate the process whereby force and diplomacy are orchestrated to produce peace and security. Address all comments, news, and other correspondence to the editor, Gregory J. W. Urwin, Department of History, Temple University, Gladfelter Hall (025-24), Philadelphia, PA 19122. Phone: 215- 204-3809.  E-Mail:


        What was it like to stand in the ranks of General George Washington's Continental Army and face the trained and disciplined Redcoats and Hessians that King George III sent to reclaim the Thirteen Colonies? How did the primitive flintlock muskets carried by both sides in the American Revolution shape the face of battle? How did the opposing armies induce men to stand in tight formations and exchange volleys at ranges of less than 100 yards?

        These questions and other aspects of eighteenth-century soldier life were discussed when Dr. Gregory J. W. Urwin, professor of history at Temple University, presented a living history program, "An Afternoon with a Redcoat," on Thursday afternoon, January 30, 2003, in 914 Gladfelter Hall on Temple's Main Campus. The program was sponsored by the Student Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy.

        A full house composed of Temple faculty and students saw Urwin appear accurately garbed and fully equipped as a private in the 23rd Royal Welch Fusiliers, one of the regiments that helped General Sir William Howe capture Philadelphia 225 years ago. Assuming the role of a common Redcoat, Urwin provided a graphic description of how the infantryman's flintlock musket worked, and how its strengths and weaknesses dictated the battlefield tactics that were employed by both sides. He also described eighteenth-century military fashion, explaining how the uniforms employed by both sides reflected the Western world's military and civilian culture at that time.

        Urwin possesses strong credentials for this kind of program. He is the author or editor of eight books on American military history, including The United States Infantry: An Illustrated History, 1775-1918, which deals with the evolution of American infantry tactics from the Revolution through World War I. He has also been involved with living history since 1974, and has participated in hundreds of programs recreating soldier life in both the American Revolution and the Civil War. His expertise led to his working as a historical consultant and troop trainer for the Civil War feature film, Glory, and he has been a historical consultant for many historical documentaries.


Richard H. Immerman

        From time to time my father-in-law calls to discuss current events or, more likely, a book he is reading about either current events or history (for those of us who study force and diplomacy, the divide between current events and history is not always unambiguous).  He recently called because he was in the midst of Bob Woodward’s Bush at War.  He was having a difficult time reconciling his impressions of the president and his national security advisors with Woodward’s more positive, even heroic portrayals.  I launched into a treatise on the inherent problems of evidence.  Woodward has the degree of access to the White House, State Department, and Pentagon that others can only dream of having, I explained.  He produces “first cut” histories, and if he is too critical he might jeopardize that access.  He flatters rather than interrogates.  I conceded that I have no way of knowing whether this dynamic influenced his assessments.  I needed to reserve judgment until I can compare Woodward’s  with other, yet to be written books, until the history of the Bush administration plays out to its end, and ultimately, until the archival record becomes available.  Apparently satisfied, my father-in-law concluded the conversation with the comment, “what a great time to be in academics.”

        He’s right of course (though I’ll interject that in my opinion all times are great times to be in academics).  And because I am privileged to direct Temple’s Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy, it is a very great time.  As I am sure is true for practically every reader of this newsletter, nevertheless, I wish this were not the case, at least for the reasons implied my father-in-law.  As I am writing this short “note,” the Bush administration seems determined to engage U.S. forces as soon as possible in a war against Iraq even as America’s allies and colleagues on the UN Security Council are counseling, at a minimum, patience.  Concurrently the administration is counseling patience abroad while scrambling at home to formulate some semblance of a coherent strategy in response to North Korea’s revelations about its nuclear program and decision to withdraw from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (and threat to abrogate the 1953 armistice).  On account of the potentially cataclysmic consequences of these twin crises (and let us not overlook the continuing horrors in the Middle East and so much of Africa), CENFAD’s cup runneth over.

        People within and beyond the Temple community (including my father-in-law) turn to CENFAD’s faculty associates to reconcile the apparent disconnect between the Bush administration’s behavior toward Iraq and North Korea, which the president once upon a time so emphatically and dramatically linked together as two-thirds of the globe’s “Axis of Evil.”  We don’t always agree among ourselves (after all, we are academics), but we can all readily identify the variables that distinguish the two strategic equations.  On the conceptual level, however, the Bush administration poses a direct challenge to CENFAD.  The fundamental principle that underlay the establishment of the Center is that the history of foreign affairs, especially the successful management of foreign affairs, manifests the interdependence of force and diplomacy.  Yet the Bush administration has demonstrated a rigid preference for either force or diplomacy.

        Predisposed toward a preemptive (preventive?) strike to achieve “regime change” in Iraq (and apparently by extension peace throughout the Middle East followed by a new world order), America’s national security managers only reluctantly, after much pleading and prodding from Colin Powell (who subsequently morphed into a hawk), agreed to some negotiations, and even then they agreed to negotiate with America’s allies and the members of the UN Security Council more than with Saddam Hussein. Few observers required Powell’s  presentation to the UN on February 5 to predict that the chances for the inspections to produce any finding sufficient to deter the U.S. from implementing its war plans, moreover, are slim to none. In contrast, from what I understand (and my sources are not nearly as good as Bob Woodward’s), the military option (such as a preemptive strike on a nuclear reprocessing plant) is not on the table with regard to North Korea. Perhaps ironically, Kim Jong Il, of all people, appears to have a more sophisticated, and, yes, nuanced grasp of the synergy between force and diplomacy than does George W. Bush.  After meeting with Kim’s envoy Han Song Ryol, New Mexico’s Governor Bill Richardson concluded that the North Koreans were “being belligerent in preparation, I believe, for a negotiation.” Force and Diplomacy versus Force or Diplomacy.  That sounds like a good title for a symposium. What a great time to direct CENFAD.


        The Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy constantly seeks to expand its support base by recruiting more members. Membership levels begin at $15.00 per year for current Temple students, both graduate and undergraduate. A regular membership is $30.00, a sustaining membership is $250.00, and a lifetime membership is $1,000.

        Anyone who joins at the two highest levels will receive autographed copies of Russell F. Weigley's classic book, The Age of Battles: The Quest for Decisive Warfare from Breitenfeld to Waterloo (1991).

        Readers of Strategic Visions are encouraged to enlist themselves or their friends as members of the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy by making use of the form that accompanies this newsletter.

        Members receive a subscription to Strategic Visions and free admission to all Center activities. The Center also welcomes tax-deductible gifts from individuals and corporations interested in supporting its mission.

        Make out your check to Temple University -- Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy, and mail it to:

Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy
Department of History
Temple University
Gladfelter Hall (025-24)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122

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