Volume 5                        Fall 2004                        Number 2


        On April 23, 2004, an audienceof nearly 200 Temple students and faculty and visitors from the Philadelphiaarea welcomed ProfessorMichael T. Klare, who delivered the Annual Lecture sponsored by theCenterfor the Study of Force and Diplomacy at Temple University (CENFAD).Klare titled his presentation "Oil, WMDs, and Conflict in the Middle East."As April marked America's deadliest month in its occupation of Iraq, ProfessorKlare challenged his listeners to grapple with the complexities of theUnited States' role in the Middle East and America's inextricably linkedreliance on foreign sources of energy. His provocative argument encouragedlively responses from the many spectators. 

        Klare, the Five College Professorof Peace and World Security Studiesat Hampshire College in Massachusetts, has published widely on peaceand security issues. His latest book,Blood and Oil: The Dangers andConsequences of America's Growing Petroleum Dependency, follows thetheme of his previous work, Resource Wars: The New Landscape of GlobalConflict, in which Klare argued that the wars of the twenty-first centurywill be dictated by the pursuit of scarce and valuable natural resourcessuch as oil, diamonds, and water. His discussion prepared the Temple audiencefor the release of Blood and Oil in the summer of 2004.

(Left) Professor Michael T. Klare addresses a raptaudience at CENFAD's Annual Lecture, April 23, 2004.  (Courtesy TempleTimes)

        Klare discussedthe United States' role as the world's sole "hyperpower," a role whichis more dominant than that of a superpower. As a hyperpower, America --and its frequent exercise of power around the globe -- is a major sourceof anxiety and resentment in much of the underdeveloped world. Klare specifiedthe continued pursuit of petroleum as the cause of America's sustainedglobal presence and thus, ultimately, as the cause of the anxiety and resentmentthat makes the United States a target for terrorists and other adversaries.

        No other resource in Americanhistory has so dominated the geopolitical perceptions of American policymakersas much as oil, as Klare demonstrated. Beginning with Franklin D. Roosevelt'ssecret agreement with the ruling family of Saudi Arabia during World WarII, the pursuit of oil and the protection of its sources in the MiddleEast have been inextricably tied to American foreign and military policy.Sixty years after FDR's agreement, the continued commitment to pursuingand protecting petroleum serves as a major stumbling block to peace amongthe regional powers in the Middle East and Central Asia as well as to constructivecooperation among world powers such as China and Russia.

        The Bush Administration'sreckless pursuit of oil security under the pretext of democracy in Iraq,Klare claimed, has only exacerbated the international resentment of Americanpower and interests. Klare boldly proclaimed that no military solutionwill be found for America's energy reliance on the Middle East. He didnot play partisan politics, though; regardless of who occupies the WhiteHouse in January 2005, the problem lies in the bipartisan national strategyof linking American energy policy to American foreign policy. Still, Klarederided President George W. Bush's apathetic and laid-back attitude towarddeveloping new energy technology to replace oil, the supply of which eventhe most optimistic estimates claim will not last the twenty-first century.For Klare, the important question concerning oil reserves is not if theywill run out, but when. He warned that, all utopian environmentalist intentionsaside, the United States must find new energy sources or face serious consequences,since reserves will most likely be exhausted by the year 2030.

        With such an unsettling argument,Professor Klare received vigorous critiques from several members of theaudience. One listener asserted that Klare's analysis of Central Asia asa region of recent great power competition over oil fundamentally underestimatesthe strategic importance and internal conflicts of the region that dateback to at least the nineteenth century.

        Ultimately, Professor Klareargued, "We must separate our energy policy from our foreign policy andtake steps to lead us out of war." The Bush Administration's dilemma inthe new Iraq and rising gas prices lent extra resonance to Klare's words.As the audience's animated response indicated, Americans are now realizingthe dangerous consequences of their dependency on foreign oil. ProfessorKlare declared that the United States must now dedicate its technologicalprowess to developing alternative sources of energy and transportation.A failure to do so will demand a greater and sustained global presencethat may not be worth the cost in American blood.


        Dr.Gregory J. W. Urwin, professor of history and associate director ofthe Center for the Study of Forceand Diplomacy at Temple University, has been invited to deliver theTwenty-fifth Annual Bancroft Memorial Lecture at the UnitedStates Naval Academy on Monday evening, October 18, 2004. The eventwill coincide with festivities marking the one hundred fifty-ninth anniversaryof the Naval Academy's founding. The lecture is named in honor of GeorgeBancroft, the American historian and public servant, who founded the NavalAcademy in 1845 during his tenure as Secretary of the Navy. 

Members of the Brigade of Midshipmen on parade at the U.S. NavalAcademy.  (Courtesy U.S. Naval Academy)

        In a letter of invitationdated August 23, Vice AdmiralRodney P. Rempt, the Naval Academy's Superintendent, informed Urwin:"We have been privileged to have previous Bancroft Memorial Lectures deliveredby such historians as John Keegan, Michael Howard, Philip Curtin, StephenAmbrose, Gerhard Weinberg and Victor Davis Hanson. We hope to add yourname to the list. Your scholarly achievements, commitment to education,and public service personify Bancroft's ideals, and we are confident thatthe Brigade of Midshipmen will find your lecture interesting, valuable,and relevant."

        Urwin's topic will be "Discipline,Camaraderie, and Luck: A Tale of POW Survival." It will draw on his researchfor his current book project, "Victory in Defeat: The Defenders of WakeIsland as Prisoners of War, 1941-1945."

        Urwin's lecture is scheduledto begin at 7:30 P.M. in Mahan Auditorium.


        Temple University's Departmentof History began the 2004-5 school year with eight new presidential facultyswelling its ranks. The addition of so many tenure-track positions is theresult of an unprecedented university-wide hiring spree aimed at advancingTemple to the front rank of America's research universities. Temple's HistoryDepartment was doubly blessed by the fact that its increase in numberswas accompanied by a commensurate jump in quality. All of its new hiresare accomplished scholar/teachers, and several of them are established"stars" in their respective areas of specialization. Five of these distinguishednew arrivals have joined the Centerfor the Study of Force and Diplomacy.Strategic Visions takesgreat pleasure in introducing them to the CENFAD community.

        BethBailey came to Temple from the University of New Mexico, whereshe had been both a professor and the acting chair of the Department ofAmerican Studies. She also directed UNM's Feminist Research Institute andhad held the university's Regents Lectureship since 2000.

        Bailey received her history from the University of Chicago in 1986. Her early teaching postsincluded the University of Hawai'i, the University of Kansas, and BarnardCollege at Columbia University, where she rose to the rank of associateprofessor. Bailey was Barnard's Ann Whitney Olin Junior Fellow from 1991to1994. She also served as the director of the American Studies Programfrom 1989 to1994.

        Bailey has received a J.William Fulbright Senior Lectureship at the University of Indonesia. TheOrganization of American Historians-Japanese Association for American Studiespresented her with a Short-term Residency in American History at SaitamaUniversity in Japan. In addition to those honors, Bailey has received numerousother fellowships. The American Studies Association selected Bailey in1999 as a delegate to the Japanese Association of American Studies meetingin Tokyo. Northwestern University offered her the Kreeger-Wolf VisitingChair for Women Scholars in 1996, but she was unable to accept.

        Professor Bailey's scholarlyreputation rests securely on a string of impressive publications. She hasauthored two monographs, From Front Porch to Back Seat: Courtship in20th Century America (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988) and Sexin the Heartland: Politics, Culture, and the Sexual Revolution (HarvardUniversity Press, 1999). Bailey and her husband, David Farber, have co-authoredTheFirst Strange Place: The Alchemy of Sex and Race in World War IIHawaii ( Free Press, 1992). Bailey also helped co-author the latestedition of one of the most widely used college-level textbooks on UnitedStates history -- A People and A Nation -- which is currently inpress at Houghton Mifflin. In addition, Bailey is the co-editor of twoanthologies, A History of Our Time (Oxford University Press, 2003)and The Columbia Guide to America in the 1960s (Columbia UniversityPress, 2001). The latter was selected by the American Library Associationas "The Best of the Best from University Presses" in 2002.

        Bailey has published morethan two-dozen articles, many of which have been reprinted in anthologies,and at least that many book reviews and encyclopedia entries. She has deliveredsome three-dozen invited lectures and conference presentations all overthe United States, and as far away as Japan and Indonesia.

        To support Bailey's currentresearch project, "'To Be All That You Can Be': Recruiting the All-VolunteerMilitary," the National Endowment for the Humanities has awarded her aSenior Research Fellowship. The Woodrow Wilson International Center forScholars has also given her a Residential Fellowship.

        Formerly an associate professorof history at Wellesley College, ElizabethVaron earned her Ph.D. from the Yale University in 1993. That sameyear, she received an appointment at Wellesley. She was awarded tenurein 1999. In spring 2003, Varon was named the Class of 1966 Associate Professorof History. Having taught exclusively and successfully at Wellesley fora decade, she is eager to exploit the opportunities offered by a universitywith a graduate program and a curriculum that includes an array of specializedcourses. Having enjoyed the Philadelphia area while an undergraduate atSwarthmore and attracted by the strengths of Temple's history program,Varon identified Temple as an excellent match for her interests and goals.

(Left) Elizabeth Van Lew, the subject of ElizabethVaron's prize-winning book, Southern Lady, Yankee Spy.

        Varon is anexceptionally accomplished, insightful, and original historian who integratespolitical and military history into her specializations in U.S. Women'sand Southern history. She is comfortable writing and teaching about anyera of the nineteenth century, although her particular concentrations arein the ante-bellum and Civil War eras. In her relatively brief professionalcareer, she has produced an impressive body of scholarship. Among her sevenarticles and book chapters is the much-acclaimed "Tippecanoe and Ladies,Too: White Women and Party Politics in Antebellum Virginia," which appearedin the prestigious Journal of American History in 1995. Her firstbook,We Mean to be Counted: White Women and Politics in AntebellumVirginia(University of North Carolina Press, 1998), was a finalistfor the Virginia Center Book Award for Non-Fiction.

        Oxford University Press recentlypublished Varon's second book, SouthernLady, Yankee Spy: The True Story of Elizabeth Van Lew. Alreadywidely acclaimed, it is an alternate selection of the Book of the MonthClub and a selection of both the History Book Club and Military Book Club.SouthernLady, Yankee Spy won the Virginia Historical Society's 2004 RichardSlatten Award for Excellence in Virginia Biography earlier this year. Ithas just been singled out again for the People's Choice Award for Nonfiction,sponsored by the Library of Virginia and James River Writers Festival.Varon is particularly proud of this honor. Readers across Virginia votedat libraries and bookstores for the nonfiction book they most admired,and hers emerged at the head of the pack.  Southern Lady, YankeeSpy has also been featured on C-SPAN's Book-TV and in "Best Books of2003" articles in the Richmond Times-Dispatch and the RaleighNews & Observer. Positive reviews have begun rolling in, the firstof them appearing in Publisher's Weekly, Library Journal,and the Washington Post Book World.

            Varon'sarrival gives Temple's History Department unprecedented depth in coveringthe Civil War and Reconstruction era (which are also specialties of Drs.Wilbert L. Jenkins and Gregory J. W. Urwin).

        DavidWaldstreicher received his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1994.That same year he was appointed a member of the Core Faculty of the Social SciencesDivision at Bennington College in Vermont. He returned to Yale in 1996as an assistant professor of American Studies. In 1999, he received anappointment as associate professor of history with tenure at the Universityof Notre Dame. From 2001 to 2002, Waldstreicher was a fellow at the Centerfor Scholars and Writes at the New York Public Library. He has receivedmany other fellowships, including ones from the Gilder Lehrman Instituteof American History in 1999 and the Andrew Mellow Foundation in 1992. Altogether,Professor Waldstreicher has received eleven awards and fellowships. Amonghis awards is the Ralph D. Gray Prize for an article that he publishedin theJournal of the Early Republic, the most important journalfor scholars working in the period between the Constitutional Conventionand the Civil War. Few recent scholars have been so honored by their colleaguesfor their scholarship.

        Although a historian of the19th century broadly defined, Waldstreicher has concentratedprimarily on the Early American Republic. His first book, In the Midstof Perpetual Fetes: The Making of American Nationalism, 1776-1820 (ChapelHill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997) won the Jamestown Prizefor the best first book in early American history. A second monograph,RunawayAmerica: Benjamin Franklin, Slavery, and the American Revolution, waspublished this summer by Hill and Wang. Waldstreicher has also edited othervolumes (including one about to be released this fall), and he has publishedtwelve book chapters or articles. Some of the latter have appeared in suchprestigious journals as the already-mentioned Journal of the Early Republic,the Journal of American History, and the William & Mary Quarterly.He has another monograph, Turning Out: Dress, Politics, and NationalIdentity in America from the Boston Tea Party to the Blue and the Gray,under contract with Hill and Wang as well. In addition, Professor Waldstreicher'sbook reviews have appeared in the most prominent historical journals (includingthose in which he has published articles), he has presented papers andprovided commentaries at the most prominent meetings of historians (includingthe American Historical Association, Organization of American Historians,and Society for Historians of the Early American Public), and he has deliverednumerous invited lectures at such revered venues as Oxford and CambridgeUniversities.

        RitaKrueger has served as associate director of the Center for Russia,East Europe, and Central Asia (CREECA) at the University of Wisconsin,Madison, in September 1997. She also received an adjunct appointment asa lecturer in Wisconsin's renowned Department of History. The same yearthat Dr. Krueger arrived at Madison, she received the Ph.D. from HarvardUniversity, where she worked under the direction of Roman Szporluk, theMykhailo Hrushevs'kyi Professor of Ukrainian History. She also earned theM.A. from Harvard in 1990. Dr. Krueger's B.A. came from Indiana University,where she earned High Distinction in both History and German and Honorsin History. Among the numerous awards and honors she has received are atwo-year Jean Monnet Fellowship at the European University Institute, anAmerican Council of Learned Societies Fellowship, a J. William FulbrightAward, and an IREX Research Grant.

        Krueger has already publisheda chapter in an important collection on Central and Eastern European history- "Nationalizing the Public," in Culture and Nation in Central and EasternEurope, edited by John-Paul Himka, et. al. (Cambridge: Harvard UniversityPress, 2000). She has also co-authored an article, "Noble Family Archives,"in the 1998 edition of the Austrian History Yearbook, and has anotherarticle, "Mediating Progress in the Provinces: State-Building versus Citizen-Makingin the Agrarian Societies of 18th Century Bohemia," in press.The manuscript of her revised dissertation is currently under review atBerghahn Books. Challenging the received wisdom, For the Good of theFatherland: Elites and Nation-Building in the Habsburg Realm arguesthat the aristocracy played a key role in fostering Czech nationalism bypromoting Bohemian science and industry and by creating a national museumto "preserve" (when they did not fabricate) Bohemia's cultural, historical,and even geological heritage.

        Krueger has begun work onher next project, tentatively titled "Visions of Domesticity: Gender andPower in the Bohemian and Austrian Nobility.

        PetraGoedde not only received her Ph.D in history from NorthwesternUniversity in 1995, but she also earned an M.A. there in 1988. Goedde workedas a visiting assistant professor of history at the University of PugetSound, Tacoma, Washington, from 1993 to 1994. Two years later, she spentthe summer as a visiting assistant professor of history at Brown University.Goedde held an appointment as a lecturer in the History Department at PrincetonUniversity from 1998 to 2001, spent a year as a visiting assistant professorat the University of Erfut in Germany, and then returned to Princeton asa lecturer in the fall of 2002.

        Goedde's year at the Universityof Erfurt was made possible by a Maria Sybilla Merian Fellowship. In 2002,Dr. Goedde received a Stipendium zur Frauenförderung des Landes Thüringen.She was also a Visiting Fellow at Princeton in 1996-97 and a Fellow atHarvard University's Charles Warren Center for Studies in American Historyfrom 1995 to 1996. A native of Germany but fluent in English, Dr. Goeddecame to the United States to study at Northwestern on a DAAD (German AcademicExchange Service) Scholarship. In 2003, Yale University Press publishedher revised dissertation under the title, GIsand Germans: Culture, Gender, and Foreign Relations, 1945-1949.

        In addition to her monograph,Goedde has published "Villains to Victims: Fraternization and the Feminizationof Germany, 1945-1947," which appeared as the lead article in the winter1999 issue of Diplomatic History, the most important journal forhistorians of U.S. foreign relations. She also published a chapter in anedited volume in German, Die USA und Deutschland im Zeitalter des KaltenKrieges, Ein Handbook. That book will soon appear in an English editionpublished by Cambridge University Press. Finally, Goedde has also publishedreviews in such prominent journals as the American Historical Reviewand International History Review, and she has delivered some seventeenpapers and invited lecturers in the United States and Germany.


GeoffreyHerrera, assistant professor of political science, has publishedtwo articles in the past year. The first, "Technology and InternationalSystems," appeared in a 2003 special issue ofMillennium: Journal ofInternational Studies (vol. 32 no. 3). The second, "Inventing the Railroadand Rifle Revolution: Information, Military Innovation and the Rise ofGermany," appeared in the June 2004 (vol. 27 no. 2) issue of the Journalof Strategic Studies. His book manuscript, tentatively titled "Technologyand International Transformation," is under contract with the State Universityof New York Press.

Jay Lockenour,associate professor of history and associate director of the Centerfor the Study of Force and Diplomacy, contributed an essay to accompanythe Paley Library's recently opened "War on the Walls" online exhibit."War on the Walls" displays selections from George F. Tyler's collectionof more than 1,500 propaganda posters, along with documents, photographs,and short essays. Lockenour's essay, "The War on the Walls: Propagandain the Great War," can be found at:'s complete collection is housed in the Temple University Library'sDepartment of Special Collections, and all 1,500-plus posters are alsoavailable digitally through Digital Diamond ( F. Tyler also donated the estate that houses Temple's Tyler Schoolof Art in Elkins Park. To see the exhibit, visit: War on the Walls (

Dr. Jay Lockenour (in red shirt) with alumnus Scott Borino at a HistoryDepartment function.

        Lockenour has also been activeat conferences during the past several months. In January, he presented"Friend or Foe? The Image of the Enemy in Post-World War Two West GermanCombat Films" to the 2004 Annual Meeting of the American Historical Associationin Washington, D.C. In May, he chaired a panel at the Society for MilitaryHistory conference in Bethesda, Maryland, entitled "World War II PrisonCamps and American Policy."

Gregory J. W. Urwin,professor of history and associate director of the Centerfor the Study of Force and Diplomacy, appeared on "Washington Crossingthe Delaware," an episode of the new "Tech Effect" series on the HistoryChannel that aired on June 29, 2004. Urwin served as the chief historicalconsultant for the program, providing the producers with historical informationon the First Battle of Trenton ( December 25-26, 1776), plus guidance onthe material culture of the Continental Army and its Hessian foes (uniforms,weapons, and equipment), and illustrated references for the animated graphicsthat depicted the technology highlighted by the show. Urwin also assistedin extensive rewrites of the script. His interview was shot in the Dean'sConference Room at Temple University's Fox School of Business. Temple'sOffice of News and Media Relations secured this facility for the film crewsent by Screaming Flea Productions to convert Urwin into a talking head.

        Urwin also received severalopportunities to interact with live audiences last spring and summer. OnApril 7, 2004, he delivered an invited lecture, "Cornwallis and the Slavesof Virginia: A Fresh Look at the Yorktown Campaign," to the faculty andgraduate students at the University of North Texas. UNT is making a concertedeffort to raise its profile as a center for the teaching and study of militaryhistory in the United States. On April 28, Urwin visited Philadelphia'srenowned Union League, where he presented "'Cut to Pieces and Gone to Hell:The Poison Spring Massacre" to the Union League of Philadelphia Civil WarRound Table. On July 6, he entertained the Bucks County Civil War RoundTable with "'A Very Disastrous Defeat': The Battle of Helena, Arkansas,July 4, 1863."

        Urwin attended the Societyfor Military History 2004 Annual Meeting in Bethesda, Maryland, from May20 to 23. 2004. He acted as commentator on a panel devoted to "MilitaryHistory and Museums." He also spent a lot of time conferring with prospectiveauthors for his Campaigns and Commanders Series.

        Pacific War, the newsletterof the Pacific War Study Group, devoted more than three pages of its May/June2004 issue to an interview with Urwin. The piece mainly concerned Urwin'sexperiences while researching his prize-winning book, Facing FearfulOdds: The Siege of Wake Island. Urwin also discussed "Wake Island:Alamo of the Pacific," the special the History Channel produced based onFacingFearful Odds.

        The shocking revelationsabout American mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib Prison promptedUrwin to write an op-ed piece, "Abu Ghraib: The 'Dogs of War' Released."It appeared in Intelligencer of Doylestown, Pennsylvania, on May26, 2004, along with other affiliated newspapers that serve the Philadelphiasuburbs.

        During the past year, Urwinpublished book reviews in Civil War History, Pacific Affairs,the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Journal ofthe West, and the Western Historical Quarterly. In additionto his duties as general editor of the Campaigns and Commanders Seriesat University of Oklahoma Press, Urwin reviewed book manuscripts for Praeger,University of Alabama Press, and University of North Texas Press. He alsoserved as an outside reader for such periodicals as the Journal of AmericanHistory, Military History of the West, the Historian(Phi Alpha Theta's scholarly journal), the Arkansas Historical Quarterly,andGreasy Grass (the journal of the Custer Battlefield Historicaland Museum Association).


JeffreyLaMonica, doctoral student in history, has been invitedback to participate in the University of Delaware's Academy of LifelongLearning. On September 29, 2004, he spoke on "Weapons, Tactics, and theMilitary Revolution of the Great War." LaMonica also continues to teachin the History Department at LaSalle University in Philadelphia.

Matthew J. Muehlbauer, Ph.D. student in history, has been offereda Societyof Fellows Graduate Associateship for 2004-5 by Temple University'sCollege of Liberal Arts. The associateship entitles Muehlbauer to a $500research account to pay for books and professional travel related to hisscholarship. In return, he will be participating in round table discussionswith other Graduate Associates, where they will discuss their work in aninterdisciplinary perspective. The Graduate Associates will also receivea programming budget for seminars, workshops, mini-conferences, or speakers,and Muehlbauer will participate in the planning and execution of such programs.Along with his duties as a graduate associate, Muehlbauer continues towork on his dissertation, "Conceiving War: The Comprehension of Warfarein Seventeenth-Century New England and the Conduct of King Philip's War."

        As if Muehlbauer were notbusy enough, he is teaching Hist. 208, Military Strategy & Policy,this fall semester at Temple's Center City Campus. He is also teachingan American history survey course at Manhattan College in Riverdale, NewYork.

        Phillip G. Pattee,Ph.D. student in history, had an article titled "Lessons for Force Protectionfrom Iraq," accepted for publication in Joint Forces Quarterly. Thearticle is supposed to appear in Issue 37, which will be released in December2004/January 2005. Pattee, a retired U.S. Navy commander, also continuesto teach as an instructor at the U.S.Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

        DavidJ. Ulbrich, Ph.D. student in history, published his first book,ThomasHolcomb and the Advent of the Marine Corps Defense Battalion, 1936-1941,as a volume in the Occasional Paper Series put out by the History &Museums Division, U.S. Marine Corps in Washington, D.C. The monograph originatedas Ulbrich's M.A. thesis at Ball State University.

        Ulbrich's award-winning article,"Clarifying the Origins and Strategic Mission of the U.S. Marine CorpsDefense Battalion, 1898-1941," has been reprinted in Today's Best MilitaryWriting, edited by Walter Boyne and published by Forge Press. Amongthe contributors to this anthology are Martin Blumenson, Spencer Tucker,and Robert Doughty.

        Last spring, Temple's HistoryDepartment honored Ulbrich with the 2004 John Kramer Award as the outstandinggraduate student in American history. Over summer break, Ulbrich filledin for the late Professor Russell F. Weigley as instructor for a Chautauquaon the "Consequences of World War II." Ulbrich also served as a refereefor the Department of Education's Teaching American History grant program.

        Ulbrich has accepted a positionas instructor of history at BallState University beginning in fall 2004. This appointment includesteaching courses on campus as well as in an extension program for the IndianaDepartment of Correction. Ulbrich is also continuing work on his dissertationon the commandancy of Thomas Holcomb and the development of the U.S. MarineCorps in the 1930s and 1940s.

Matthew Wayman, M.A. student in history, continues work on histhesis, tentatively titled "The Failure of New France's Defensive NetworkDuring the Seven Years' War in North America, 1756-1760." One of Wayman'sseminar papers, "Fortifications at Quebec, 1759-1760: Their Conditionsand Impact on the Sieges and Battles," was published in the Winter 2004issue of theJournal of America's Military Past. Wayman also hasa bibliographic essay on the French and Indian War slated to appear inthe December 2004 issue of Choice, and he is currently serving asthe bibliographer and author of the glossary for the Encyclopedia ofNorth American Colonial Warfare to 1775, edited by Spencer C. Tucker.

Major Grant Weller, USAF, Ph.D. student in history, was awardedthe Air Force Commendation Medal for actions undertaken in support of OperationIRAQI FREEDOM in the spring of 1993. Then-Captain Weller was assigned tothe 4th Space Control Squadron, HollomanAir Force Base, New Mexico, which carried out the largest deploymentof space control forces in history.

Strategic Visions: Newsletter of the Centerfor the Study of Force and Diplomacy at Temple University.

Editor: Gregory J.W. Urwin

Co-Editor of Internet Edition: Wendy Wong

Contributors: RichardH. Immerman, Jay Lockenour,ReginaGramer, Andrew McKevitt, DavidJ. Ulbrich

Strategic Visions is published twice a year by the Centerfor the Study of Force and Diplomacy, Department of History, TempleUniversity. CENFAD was founded in 1992 by Drs. Russell F. Weigley andRichardH. Immerman. The Center promotes research and sponsors programs designedto construct new theories of statecraft and illuminate the process wherebyforce and diplomacy are orchestrated to produce peace and security. Addressall comments, news, and other correspondence to the editor, Gregory J.W. Urwin, Department of History, Temple University, Gladfelter Hall (025-24),1115 West Berks Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Phone: 215-204-3809.


        Folks who are not involvedwith publishing might think that an author can relax once he gets a bookinto print. But no author can truly rest until he is certain that his workis received favorably by reviewers. This is particularly the case in academe,where books are usually reviewed by authorities in the fields they address.If an author has been sloppy with his research or reasoning, he is sureto get caught.

            SinceJanuary 2004, Professor GregoryJ. W. Urwin of Temple's History Department has been sweating the reviewsfor his latest book, an edited volume titledBlackFlag over Dixie: Racial Atrocities and Reprisals in the Civil War.When Southern Illinois University Press first released Black Flag overDixie, Urwin received a slew of e-mails from self-appointed defendersof "Southern Heritage," who feared the book would cast their Confederateancestors in an unfavorable light. One pen pal who identified himself asa "Confederate by Heritage, Rebel by Choice," told Urwin: "YourPhd must stand for 'Post Hole Digger.'" Another declared, " It would bebest, before attempting to write such a broad history, and one so biased,to attempt to gain more historical data on the subject by reading books,as an example." A third neo-Confederate sent these remarks: "Sir, Justread your book. What a great bunch of fiction and half truths! Really,you should have titled it 'Plain Hogwash'. . . . p.s. I won't make themistake of reading anymore garbage you come out with." After such an initialreception, Urwin was eager to see how his book would fare with better informedand more objective critics.

(Right) Dr. Gregory J. W. Urwin as the commander ofHollywood's version of Company E, 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry-- the Union Army's most famous black regiment during the Civil War --on the set of Glory.  Urwin's interest in African-Americantroops in the Civil War and his background in living history led to hisworking as a troop trainer for the 1989 Oscar-winning epic.  He alsogot to portray one of the 54th's white officers during the filming of theclimactic scenes depicting the bloody assault on Fort Wagner, July 18,1863.  Sketch by Ronnie A. Nichols.  (Gregory J. W. Urwin Collection)

        The first publication totake note of Black Flag over Dixie was America's Civil War,a popular magazine found on newsstands. In the June 2004 issue, D. ScottHartwig, the Chief Historian at Gettysburg National Military Park, announced:"Standing out among this month's reviews is a book of essays on one ofthe war's most sensitive, controversial, and least studied subjects, racialatrocities and reprisals. . . . Urwin and a group of other gifted historianscontribute balanced essays on some of the war's ugliest incidents and thereaction to and memory of those events." Hartwig added, "As Urwin notesin the introduction, the subject matter is disturbing. But, he writes,understanding what happened, why it happened and what it means today isessential to understanding the nature of the American Civil War."

        Versaille F. Washington,professor of Military Science at the University of Dayton and a formerinstructor at the U.S. Military Academy, reviewed Black Flag over Dixiefor the summer 2004 issue of Civil War Book Review, an electronicpublication. Washington is also the author ofEagles on Their Buttons:A Black Infantry Regiment in the Civil War (University of MissouriPress, 1999). Washington credited Urwin with bringing "together a groupof essays that explores a still nearly untouched aspect of this conflict."Washington also calls the book "a fascinating examination of what [Urwin]refers to as 'the war's central cause and most convulsive issue.'" He observed:"With Black Flag Over Dixie, Urwin seeks to open the path to notonly a fuller understanding of the war, but also of our nation. His effortmakes a good start, but also highlights the limited scholarship to date."Washington called Black Flag over Dixie "an essential addition toCivil War historiography," and he concluded on this note: "If we wouldcontinue as a great nation, we must be willing to undertake a criticalself-examination. Black Flag Over Dixie is an excellent lens throughwhich to conduct a part of that examination."

        Professor Phyllis F. Fieldof Ohio University reviewed Urwin's book for North & South: OfficialMagazine of the Civil War Society. "Collectively," she observed, "theseessays suggest that murderous attacks on African Americans did occur andled to retaliatory incidents by black soldiers. The failure to investigatefully and fairly at the time led to speculation, exaggeration, distortedmemories, and long-lasting debates over ultimate responsibility. Higher-upsconsistently tried to distance themselves from responsibility while signalingby their failure to investigate or discipline those involved their likelyattitudes." Field ended with this endorsement: "Those who wish to basetheir statements about this controversial topic on solid evidence shoulddefinitely read this book."

(Left) "Rally on the Colors," Tod Haskin Fredericks'depiction of the 54th Massachusetts  Infantry's color guard at theBattle of Olustee, Florida, on February 20, 1864, served as the cover illustrationfor Black Flag over Dixie.  Fredericks' model for the firstsergeant at center was Ronnie A. Nichols, former director of Arkansas'Old State House Museum and Urwin's first sergeant during the shooting ofGlory. Fredericks' other models were Urwin's students from the University of CentralArkansas, whom  he trained to work on the film.  (Courtesy TodHaskin Fredericks)

        The Virginia Magazineof History and Biography featured a lengthy review of Black Flagover Dixie by Professor Ervin L. Jordan, Jr., of the University ofVirginia. Jordan, the author ofBlack Confederates and Afro-Yankeesin Civil War Virginia (University of Virginia Press, 1995), creditedUrwin with filling a gap in Civil War scholarship. "Racial atrocities andromanticizing of the war by some historians and veterans groups," Jordanpointed out, "have made such atrocities a taboo subject; the absence ofthe term from the indices of several Civil War reference works is indicativeof this neglect. The atrocities discussed in this book are a reminder thattruth is the first casualty of war. Urwin has performed a service, andit is to be hoped that others will take up this disturbing topic."

        Robert Scott Davis of WallaceState College told readers of the Georgia Historical Quarterly thatall the essays in Black Flag over Dixie "represent in-depth researchand balanced conclusions." Elsewhere in the review, he attested, "Thisbook also has remarkable scope for such a compact work." Davis closed withthese words: "This reviewer looks forward to the volumes that will expandon the excellent work begun here, although they have a tough act to follow."

        Urwin has also been scanningthe book review sections of magazines and scholarly journals for mentionof a title that he wrote more than twenty-two years ago -- TheUnited States Cavalry: An Illustrated History, 1776-1944. Thisvolume was originally published by Blandford Press in 1983. It became aselection of the Military Book Club and was soon released in paperback,but it went out of print after Blandford was absorbed by a large Britishconglomerate. Because of persisting demand, University of Oklahoma Pressreleased a new paperback edition ofThe United States Cavalry in2003. Although Urwin was permitted to make some slight revisions, he wonderedif his book would be considered dated. After all, it is not uncommon fora history book to go out of fashion within a decade of its appearance.

        The scholarly journal, MilitaryHistory of the West, heralded the reissue of The United States Cavalrywith these words: "The book covers the period from 1776 to 1944, but thestrength of Urwin's work lies in his coverage of the cavalry from the AmericanRevolution up to the Civil War. His treatment of the era of the dragoonprovides a richness of detail, opinion, and anecdotal evidence not oftenfound in histories of the U.S. Cavalry."

        In the popular magazine,WildWest, freelance writer Eric Niderost opined that Urwin "provides acomprehensive view of the subject that's every bit as colorful as its fictionalincarnations [meaning depictions of the U.S. Cavalry in novels and films].Niderost also claimed, "Urwin's prose style is one of the book's greatstrengths. Each chapter is highlighted by anecdotal accounts of battlesand personalities that bring the horse soldier to vivid life. . . . Allin all, The United States Cavalry: An Illustrated History 1776-1944is a welcome addition to any bookshelf that hasn't already included theearlier work."

        Major General Jonathan R.Burton, U.S. Army (retired), a former Olympic rider, reviewed Urwin's U.S.Cavalry book for Eventing USA, a magazine for the horse-show set."Urwin has created a comprehensive review of U.S. horse cavalry," Johnsonopined. "From a historian's point of view this book presents a completepicture of a bygone era extending from the Revolutionary War well intothe 20th century."


        Since Dr.Gregory J. W. Urwin joined CENFADand Temple's Department of History in the fall of 1999, he has been workingto build a book series, Campaigns and Commanders, which he edits for Universityof Oklahoma Press. The time he has devoted during the past five yearsto recruiting authors and editing book proposals and manuscripts is finallypaying off. Campaigns and Commanders is now firmly established and positionedto published three to four titles a year. Oklahoma's fall 2004 catalogadvertises the fifth and sixth volumes in the series,TheUncivil War:  Irregular Warfare in the Upper South, 1861-1865by Robert R. Mackey and BlueWater Creek and the First Sioux War, 1854-1856 by R. Eli Paul.

       Although it concerns the American Civil War, Robert R. Mackey's TheUncivil War is especially relevant in this age of asymmetrical warfare.The Upper South -- Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia -- was thescene of the most destructive war ever fought on American soil. Contendingarmies swept across the region from the outset of the Civil War until itsend, marking their passage at Pea Ridge, Shiloh, Perryville, and Manassas.Alongside this much-studied conflict, the Confederacy also waged an irregularwar, based on 19th-century principles of unconventional warfare.In The Uncivil War, Robert R. Mackey outlines the Southern strategyof waging war across an entire region, measures the Northern response,and explains the outcome.

        Robert R. Mackey, a majorin the U.S. Army, has been an army officer since 1988 and serves as a strategicplans and policy specialist at the Pentagon. The Uncivil War isbased on his doctoral dissertation, which he completed at Texas A&Min 2000. Mackey's study is considered so relevant to America's currentsecurity needs that it sold around 200 copies in its dissertation form,which is quite unusual, and it is required reading at the U.S. Army's Commandand General Staff College and the Advanced Military Studies programs. Thedissertation came to the attention of Dr. Robert M. Epstein, who earnedhis Ph.D. in military history at Temple under the late Dr. Russell F. Weigleyin 1981. Epstein currently teaches at the U.S. Army School of AdvancedMilitary Studies at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. He also serves on the Campaignsand Commanders Editorial Advisory Board, and encouraged Urwin to pursueMackey's manuscript.

        Mackey's interest in irregularwarfare is not wholly academic. He served as a military police platoonleader in the 503rd MP Battalion (Airborne) in Operation JUSTCAUSE in Panama (1989), and in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait during OperationDESERT STORM (1990-91). He returned to the Persian Gulf Area for OperationIRAQI FREEDOM as the strategic war plans officer for the U.S. Third Army.One report has it that he completed the revisions on The Uncivil Warin Baghdad's "Green Zone," sometimes working on the book while mortar shellsfell in the vicinity.

        Several major Civil War historianshave already endorsed The Uncivil War. James M. McPherson of PrincetonUniversity and author of the Pulitzer-Prize-Winning Battle Cry of Freedom:The Civil War Era, commented, "Some historians have speculated aboutwhy the Confederacy did not make greater use of guerrilla warfare. RobertMackey demonstrates that Southern partisans and raiders did practice irregularwar on a larger scale. . . . This book offers a fresh perspective on theCivil War." Daniel Sutherland of the University of Arkansas, a closestudent of guerrilla warfare in the Civil War, called The Uncivil War:"The first scholarly attempt to grapple with the complexities of the guerrillawar across the Upper South." Sutherland added that Mackey's conclusions"will serve as a touchstone for future research." William B. Feis, theauthor of Grant's Secret Service: The Intelligence War from Belmontto Appomattox, characterized Mackey's book as "a much-needed and importantaddition to the literature on a very misunderstood -- yet significant --facet of the Civil War."

        R. Eli Paul's Blue WaterCreek and the First Sioux War, 1854-1856 deals with the first majorwar waged by the United States government against the Lakota Sioux, a peoplewho had signified their determination to ward off American domination sincetheir confrontation with Lewis and Clark in 1804. In previous books onthis subject, the U.S. Army's first clashes with the powerful Sioux tribeappear as a set of irrational events with a cast of improbable characters-- a Mormon cow, a brash lieutenant, a drunken interpreter, an unfortunateBrulé chief, and an incorrigible army commander. R. Eli Paul showsinstead that the events that precipitated Brigadier General William Harney'sattack on Chief Little Thunder's Brulé village foreshadowed theentire history of conflict between the United States and the Lakota people.

        Today Blue Water Creek ismerely one of many modest streams coursing through Sioux country. The conflictsalong its margins have been overshadowed by later, more spectacular confrontations,including the Great Sioux War and George Custer's untimely demise alonganother modest stream. The Blue Water legacy has gone largely underappreciated-- until now.Blue Water Creek and the First Sioux War, 1854-1856provides a thorough and objective narrative, using a wealth of eyewitnessaccounts to reveal the significance of Blue Water Creek in Lakota and U.S.history.

        R. Eli Paul is the directorof the Liberty Memorial Museum of World War One in Kansas City, Missouri.He has edited three other books on Native American subjects -- Eyewitnessat Wounded Knee (co-edited with Richard E. Jensen and John E. Carter,1991), Autobiography of Red Cloud: War Leader of the Oglalas (1997),and The Nebraska Indian Wars Reader, 1865-1877 (1998).

        Thomas Powers, the authorof several books on America's intelligence services and winner of the 1971Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting, has praised Paul's latest book inthese words: "R. Eli Paul's Blue Water Creek and the First Sioux War,1854-1856 . . . brings to vivid life the opening chapter in the forty-yearhistory of the conquest and dispossession of the Sioux."


RichardH. Immerman

       The start of a new semester at Temple is always an exceptionally busy periodfor faculty. I guess it's a little busier for me as department chair andCENFADdirector. Without fail I must confront problems with registration, roomassignments, enrollments, and more. Once in a while an instructor is trappedoverseas waiting approval of the requisite visa, or, yes, even AWOL.

        The start of a new semesteris probably a bit more exciting for me as well. I get to meet more newstudents than most, and I receive more notices of scheduled events in thearea -- or the arrival of visiting scholars. And this year, of course,I had the privilege of welcoming all the new faculty that I wrote aboutin StrategicVision's last issue. Better yet, I had the pleasure of introducingthem around campus. (I hope some of you, by the way, had the chance toread at least some of the articles about the hiring bonanza at Temple inthe PhiladelphiaInquirer or even the Chronicle of Higher Education.How nice to be the source of such positive buzz.)

        What I like most about thestart of the semester, especially the fall semester, is that I can returnto teaching. Not that I don't lament how rapidly the summer break has passed.I'm not that abnormal. But there's something very special about walkinginto that first class. What I usually do, almost always do, is spend sometime talking about history, the art of history, the craft of history. Asis probably common to anyone who teaches history during an era when somany in the "public" (especially parents) dismiss the discipline as irrelevantto the real world, I seek to build a constituency by stressing the skillswe develop and hone: critical analysis, assessing evidence, distinguishingamong sources, using that evidence to support and sustain arguments, andmore. You know the drill. Because I teach the history of U.S. foreign policy,I often also explain the differences between history and political science,contrasting the effort to identify the influence of change over time (history)and to develop theories that encompass norms of behavior (political science/internationalrelations). We discuss the benefits of cross-fertilization between thedisciplines, which I try to do in my class. It's a lot of fun for us all.This year my class discussions about history were perhaps a bit more extendedthan in the past, and for want of a better word, more personal. That'sbecause I spent a good deal of the summer thinking about my discipline.I stole more time over the past several months than I have for years towrite. That's because I just can't extend the deadline any further forcompleting my study of the CIA. And evenif I did not face a deadline, I'd probably have spent as much time as Icould writing about, or at least reading about, the CIA. How could I not?Every day seemed to bring more news, or the release of another report.It was addictive.

        That's why I kept thinkingabout history, the discipline of history. I don't know how many of youfound the time to plough through the Senate Select Committee's Reporton the U.S. Intelligence Community's Prewar Intelligence Assessments onIraq, or the House-Senate Joint Inquiry Report on 911, or the StaffStatements of the 9/11 Commission, or of course the complete 9/11 CommissionReport: The Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist AttacksUpon the United States. Because the readers of Strategic Visionsare a very self-selective group, probably more than a few of you have.If you have not, you should (I'll be happy to lend copies or provide citations).I've read it all: Bob Woodward, Richard Clarke, Hans Blix, James Bamford,"Anonymous," etc., and so many press accounts and opinion pieces that I'velost track. These "dry" commission and committee reports make for muchmore compelling, even more dramatic reading. And collectively they aregood history. In many cases very good history. Further, what all this readingsuggested to me, strongly suggested, is what bad historians sit at desksin the White House, the Pentagon, Langley -- throughout Washington.

        At my installation talk asthe Edward J. Buthusiem Family Distinguished Faculty Fellow last spring,I spoke about the problems policymakers and intelligence analysts confrontwhen they receive information that challenges or disconfirms their preexistingbeliefs. In this column (fall 2003) I wrote previously about the cognitivedangers of reaching premature closure. This summer, when I was readingthrough these reports, these very depressing, scary reports, I kept comingback to these concerns. And I couldn't help but keep muttering to myselfthat historians would have done better. We are trained to "fact check,"over and over again. We are trained to interrogate our sources, skepticallyapproaching the credibility of each and every one of them. We are trainedto expect the unexpected, to appreciate contingency, to connect dots, toexercise imagination. We are trained to examine the influence of changeover time; we assume that (Santayana to the contrary), that history doesnot repeat itself. Hence we cannot infer that what once was still is.

        Certainly policymakers andintelligence analysts don't have the luxury that we do in our offices andclassrooms at Temple. We have the time to collect the sources we need topublish, and frankly, we are under a lot less pressure. Still, we knowwhat to do with those sources, and we teach our students what to do withthem. The Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy is unique in thatit is housed in the Department of History. I've been proud of that sinceCENFAD's founding. After 9/11 and the Iraq war/occupation, I've gainedan even greater appreciation of why.


        The Center for the Studyof Force and Diplomacy constantly seeks to expand its support base by recruitingmore members. Membership levels begin at $15.00 per year for current Templestudents, both graduate and undergraduate. A regular membership is $30.00,a sustaining membership is $250.00, and a lifetime membership is $1,000.

        Anyone who joins at the twohighest levels will receive a copy of the late Russell F. Weigley's classicbook, The Age of Battles: The Quest for Decisive Warfare fromBreitenfeld to Waterloo (1991).

        Readers of Strategic Visionsare encouraged to enlist themselves or their friends as members of theCenter for the Study of Force and Diplomacy by making use of the form thataccompanies this newsletter.

        Members receive a subscriptionto Strategic Visions and free admission to all Center activities.The Center also welcomes tax-deductible gifts from individuals and corporationsinterested in supporting its mission.

        Make out your check to TempleUniversity -- Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy, and mailit to:

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